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Week 1 -2 Study Guide.docx

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Department
Asian Language & Literature
Course
EAST 211
Professor
Rebecca Doran
Semester
Winter

Description
WEEK 1 STUDY GUIDE Legenday Culture Heroes/First Dynasties  Fuxi: The Ox-Tamer: domesticated animals and created the family  Shennong: The Divine Farmer: invented plough and hoe  Huangdi: The Yellow Emperor: invented bow and arrow, carts, boats, writing, ceramics, and silk, secured the Yellow River plain for the Chinese people  “The Five Emperors”: selection of successor by virtue o Yao: inventor of calendar and ritual o Shun: difficult family; father and stepmother repeatedly tried to kill him; harmonized his family; Yao married him to his two daughters and he also harmonized their relationship o Yu: the tamer of floods; his son succeeding him, starting the Xia Dynasty (succession by descent)  Jie: legendary “evil last ruler” of the Xia Dynasty Neolithic Cultures -Yangshao (5000-3000 B.C.) -Central Yellow River -silkworm cultivation -“slash and burn” agriculture -rammed-earth construction -cowrie shell currency -pottery: geometric, human, and animal designs -Liangzhu (3400-2250 B.C.) -Yangzi River delta -burial sites: expensive grave goods, jade pendants -Longshan (3000-2000 B.C.) -Central and lower Yellow River; cities -black eggshell pottery: high-temp kilns and pottery wheel -burial sites: grave goods, burial chambers, coffins -Erlitou (2000-1500 B.C.) -Central Henan -large-scale metallurgy: bronze foundry, very large dwellings The first three dynasties in Chinese history  Xia (traditional dates generally given as ca. 2700-ca. 1600 B.C. ; historical existence - unverified)  Shang (1766-1122 B.C.;1600 B.C.-1027 B.C) o “Evil last king and queen” King Zhou and Daji: meat forest; wine river; heated bronze cauldron; lewd songs with bad rhythm; excessive taxation o Divination/Oracle Bones:  turtle shells, cattle bone  Pyromancy: divination using fire (done by a professional diviner applying heated cattle prod to the shell or bone)  “Charge”: to the ancestors, the high god Di/ other nature spirits (interpreted by the king)  Central concerns of the charges: weather, war, childbirth of the king’s consorts (i.e., a male heir)  Central role of the Shang king and professional diviners in political religious structure  Human sacrifice; grave goods  Highly stratified society  Bronzes/taotie: frontal, bilaterally symmetrical design with animal motifs, gesture towards animals but are not direct representations o Interpretations of the taotie:  sacrificial vessels  totemism: animal ancestors  shamanism: animal spirits help in communicating with the spirits  purely artistic  Zhou (1027-256 B.C.) Virtuous Founding Figures: -King Wen (the “Cultured King”): alliances prior to conquest -King Wu (the “Martial King”): military conquest -King Cheng -Duke of Zhou: regent for King Cheng, who was a boy when he succeeded his father; extended Zhou territory and established an eastern capital; willingly relinquished the throne to King Cheng when he reached adulthood -“Heaven’s mandate” (tianming)/rule by virtue -Bronzes: heavy, with inscriptions by members of the military and civil elite WEEK 2 STUDY GUIDE 1. The Fall of the Western Zhou and Zhou timeline Western Zhou 西周 (ca. 1027-771 BC; capital at Haojing/Xi’an) - Founding Figures: King Wen (“civilized/cultured”) and his son, King Wu (“martial”) - Justification of conquest through the concept of “Heavenly Mandate” (tianming 天命) - “Paternalistic/family style government”: authority delegated to relatives and allies of the throne, who became hereditary regional rulers - Capital forced to move east in 771 B.C. after rebellion by an alliance of Zhou vassals and non- Chinese tribes - Legend of Baosi: Baosi as the dragon spittle spirit/femme fatale who brings about the destruction of King You and the Western Zhou; “the king who cried wolf”- Baosi only smiles when King You lights the beacon fires to summon his allies; archetype of the “evil last rule” and “femme fatal” (cf. King Zhou of Shang and Daji) Eastern Zhou 東周 (771-256 BC; Luoyang) Spring and Autumn Period 春秋 (722-481 BC) - Named after the historical chronicle the Spring and Autumn Annals, supposedly edited by Confucius - States ruled by dukes- remnants of the Western Zhou vassal state system - Gradual loss of Zhou Authority - Diplomacy: hegemony; interstate marriages; succession disputes (concubinage); frequent shifts in alliances - Economic developments: soybean cultivation (from Manchuria); clearing of new lands (draining marshes, irrigation); decline in serfdorm; coins replace silk as standard currency - Political/statecraft developments: direct taxation; direct administration by the central government Warring States Period 戰國 (481-221 BCE; Zhou formally ended in 256 BC, but inter-state wars continued for the next 30 years) - Large states conquer small states leading up to reunification by Qin in 221 B.C. - Warfare/technological advances: sieges of walled cities; shift from chariot-riding aristocracy to large-scale infantry army (by 300 B.C.); iron technology for farming and weapons (starting around 7 century B.C.) 2. The Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經) - A collection of 305 anonymous poems (mostly 4-syllable lines) by different authors writing at different time periods; the collection coalesced and was written down around 600 B.C. - Tradition: the poems were gathered by officials deputed by the king to collect “songs of the people” so as to gauge their mood; Confucius then edited the poems into the collection - Ca
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