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Week 10-12Study Guide.docx

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Asian Language & Literature
EAST 211
Rebecca Doran

WEEK 10 STUDY GUIDE 1. CHRONOLOGY: LATE MING THROUGH HIGH QING th a. The Late Ming (late 16 century through 1644) Reigns of the Wanli (Zhu Yijun ; 1572-1620), Tianqi (Zhu Youxiao ; 1620-1627) and Chongzhen (Zhu Youjian ; 1627-1644) Emperors Serious economic and political problems: 1. Corruption, intense factionalism (eunuch, ministerial, and imperial in-law factions); violence and inefficient government 2. Economic problems: dynastys involvement in expensive foreign conflicts; economic collapse during the reigns of the final Ming emperors (Tianqi and Chongzhen) as a result of the sudden widespread lack of silver, which had become the empire's chief medium of exchange; dramatic spike in the value of silver; provinces cant pay taxes; people began hoarding silver: economic disaster for peasants (they paid taxes in silver while conducting local trade and selling their crops with copper coins) 3. Bandit gangs: a. Zhang Xianzhong (1606-1647): rebelled and captured Sichuan, declaring the Daxi (Great West) dynasty: acts of violence b. Li Zicheng (1606-1645): from Yanan, Shanxi, a region hit hard by famine in the early 17 th century; joined a rebel army called the Dashing King and soon took over as leader; attacked and killed government officials in Henan and Shanxi o Marched on Beijing, taking the capital in 1644, and proclaimed the Shun dynasty (); Chongzhen Emperor arranged a banquet where he killed all of his officials and family members and then committed suicide b. Rise of Manchu Power - Aisin Gioro clan (), a group thought to be related to the Jurchen, originally a vassal of the Ming; 1620s and 1630s: the Manchu leadership had relied on the support of Chinese and Mongolian followers, most of whom came from Manchuria, a culturally and ethnically diverse area - Nurhachi () (d. 1626): unification of various clans, establishment of a more organized civil and military administrative structure - Hong Taiji ()(Nurhachis son): by 1635, the various tribes were unified under a clear and organized leadership structure; creation of a new, broader ethnic identity known as Manchu, which encompassed Jurchen, Mongolian, and other tribes o Offensive campaigns: displacement of the Ming from southern Manchuria (Liaodong) o The organization of the Manchu army into banners, each of which had its own colors; by the conquest of the Ming in the mid-17 century, there were eight Manchu banners (278 companies), eight Mongol banners (120 banners), and eight Chinese banners (165 companies; Chinese here designating Chinese-speaking allies from Manchuria, not Ming dynasty subjects) o The banners were garrisoned strategically throughout the empire and lived apart from the local population; bannermen reported directly to the Manchu headquarters in Beijing and enjoyed special privileges o Declared the Chinese-style dynastic name Qing in 1636, thus signaling his ambition to rule China, but they did not actually take the Chinese capital until 1644, the official first year of the Qing in Chinese historical chronicles Prince Dorgon () (1612-1650; Chengzong of the Qing dynasty), the fourteenth son of the unifier Nurhachi and half-brother of the Manchu leader Hong Taiji; instrumental role in the military conquest of Beijing 1643: death of Hong Taiji: power struggle between Dorgon and Hong Taijis eldest son, Hooge (); ultinately, the two contenders for the throne resolved their dispute by placing a third party, Hong Taijis ninth son, the six-year-old Fulin, on the throne as the Shunzhi Emperor (r. 1644-1661) o Dorgon became de fact ruler until his death in 1651 as one of Shunzhis two regents, receiving the title Emperors Uncle and Prince Regent , later elevated to Emperors Father and Regent Prince o 1645: Dorgons infamous Queue Edict mandating that all Han Chinese men must adopt Manchu hairstyle and dress, on penalty of death 1 o Manchu attempts to preserve their culture and way of life; Manchu-Chinese intermarriage prohibited; Manchu women must wear traditional Manchu clothes and are not allowed to bind their feet (as elite Chinese women do by this time) o 1651 to 1661: Shunzhi ruled in his own right: a period of transition and adaptation for both Chinese subjects and Manchu leadership o Succeeded by his third son, Xuanye , who ruled for sixty years as the Kangxi Emperor c. The Fall of the Ming and its Aftermath 1. 1644: when Li Zicheng () was occupying Beijing, his armies were locked in combat with Ming forces led by Ming general Wu Sangui (); Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian Army o Manchu Army led by Prince Dorgon (1612-1650; Chengzong of the Qing dynasty), the fourteenth son of the unifier Nurhachi and half-brother of the Manchu leader Hong Taiji, easily seized Beijing and overthrew the Shun dynasty that had recently been declared by Li Zicheng, establishing their own regime, Chinas last dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911) The fall of the Ming: Highly traumatic event in the lives of the intellectual elite; a great deal of written response to the trauma: all forms of literature (poetry, drama, non-fiction, fiction, etc.) Long, drawn-out nature of the conquest: many Southern Ming regimes pop up in the South claiming to be the reestablishment of the legitimate Ming regime; all fail miserably; 2. Southern Ming court at Nanjing (1644-1645): in the wake of Chongzhen Emperors suicide, high officials in Nanjing decide to rally a southern caretaker government around the Prince of Fu (Zhu Yousong ), who was next in line for succession after the emperors sons; the Prince of Fu is officially crowned emperor in June 1644, but power is in the hands of his powerful ministerial backers (Ma Shiying) and he is somewhat of a puppet emperor; the Southern Ming court claimed that its goal was to ally with Qing forces to pacify Li Zichengs () rebel forces; plagued by corruption; Southern advance of the Qing army; Yangzhou massacre; annihilation of the Southern Ming o Flight further south to Fujian and reestablishment Southern Ming court under the ()Longwu Emperor (Zhu Yujian; a ninth-generation descendant of the Ming founder); under the protection of Zheng Zhilong (), an intelligent and organized sea merchant/pirate; Longwu adopted his son, granted him the imperial surname, and called him Chenggong: known in English as Koxinga (Lord of the Imperial Surname); Koxinga continued anti-Qing resistance but was ultimately unsuccessful and had to flee to Taiwan Phenomenon of loyalists (leftover people yimin ), former Ming subjects who remained loyal to the Ming and refused to serve the new Qing regime d. The High Qing Period (late 17 through early 19 centuries) 1. The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) 1661-1669: Kangxi took the throne as a young boy, and regent rule in his stead, until he ousts them in 1669 with the help of his grandmother, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang () 1670s: tackled economic issues (Yellow River flooding) and enjoyed military successes at home and abroad Revolt of the Three Feudatories (1673-1681): spearheaded by Wu Sangui, the traitorous Ming general who had opened Shanhai Pass to the Manchus Had been granted a large fiefdom in the south provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou.; late 1660s, the Kangxi Emperor was concerned with the power of three southern feudatories, including Wu Sanguis fief in Yunnan and Guizhou and two others, Guangdong and Fujian, both of which were also ruled by semi-independent, despotic warlord-figures (Shang Kexi and Geng Jingzhong) o Wu Sangui: strategic position of his fief- responsible for collecting important tax revenue and overseeing diplomatic relations with Tibet. o Kangxi went ahead and ordered Wu Sangui, Shang Kexi (), and Geng Jingzhong to leave their fiefs and resettle in Manchuria: they immediately rebelled in 1673; joined by Koxingas grandson, Zheng Jing, ruler of the Kingdom of Dongning in present-day Taiwan o Initial successes for the rebels (Sichuan and Hunan), but by 1676, the tide had turned firmly in favor of the Qing imperial forces; by 1678, most of the initial rebel leaders had surrendered, with the exception of Wu Sangui, who moved north, declaring himself Emperor of the Great Zhou dynasty in Hunan (Hengzhou; 2 present-day Hengyang); he dies and his grandson and heir, Wu Shifan, was now in charge of the revolt; Wu Shifan retreats to Yunnan and Qing imperial recapture various rebel territories in Hunan, Guizhou, Guangxi, and Sichuan. o Wu 1681: Qing forces finally succeeded in putting down the rebellion, and Wu Shifan committed suicide in that year o Consequences of the rebellion: incorporation of Taiwan (Kingdom of Dongning ()in Taiwan, which the Zheng family had controlled since the time of Koxinga in the 1640s); demonstration of imperial power Other military and diplomatic successes: 1675: Qing forces put down a Mongolian rebellion Late 17 century: Kangxi personally led the Qing army in settling a dispute between Mongolian tribes, one of whom promised a submission to Qing sovere
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