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ATOC 184 _ Lecture 2.docx

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Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences
ATOC 184
Eyad Atallah

ATOC 184 – Lecture 2 Properties of theAtmosphere: 1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Moisture 4. Wind *Relationships between these properties make things more complicated 1. TEMPERATURE - Temperature is a measure of average speed of molecule movement in a substance – the more energy the molecules of air, water, etc. have, the higher temperature - This movement is faster for higher temperature and slower for lower temperatures - As temperature increases, the energy increases and so pressure increases - Absolute zero = energy in the molecules is zero - Background temperature in space is 3 or 4 k, close to absolute zero (0 kelvin) Temperature Scales - Different temperature scales were developed based on the phases of water (Celsius) and human comfort (Fahrenheit). - Celsius: temperatures of 0 and 100 are the freezing and boiling points of water - The Fahrenheit scale are largely developed based on typical outdoor temperatures in England Kelvin Scale: devised by William Thomson (1824-1907) who later received the title “Lord Kelvin” - Based upon the concept that 0 degrees is set to an energy state in which there is no molecule movement - Absolute zero (0k) = -459.67 deg F = -273.15 deg C - Absolute values different, but increment the same  1 deg increase in C = 1 deg increase in K - No negatives in Kelvin – lowest temperature is 0 deg K - - - 40 C = - 40 F  break even point Average Global Temperatures - Coldest temperatures in the winter and the warmest temperatures in the summer are over land - In general, oceans will be warmer than land in winter because water cools down and heats up slower than land does – takes more energy to change the temperature of water than land - Land locations are therefore hotter in the summer and colder in the winter than coastal areas - Best bet for mild climate (winter and summer more similar in temp) = west coasts of continents, especially by warm bodies of water - SO difference between heat and land = heat capacity = the amount of energy it takes to change the temperature - Example: takes about 6 times the amount of energy to change the temperature of water compared to air - Land to water = about 6 times the energy Seasons - Happens because the Earth is tilted The axis of rotation is not perpendicular to the sun - Summer vs. winter = Earth tilted towards or away from the sun - Winter: because of the tilt, the energy from the sun gets spread over a larger amount of space, so the radiation is less intense - Proximity to the sun matters too (for the same reason as above) – as you get further away, the light spreads out over a larger area - Solar flux and distance: the further away you are from your energy sources, the less energy you get - In winter, we’re actually clo
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