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AEBI 210- Oct 26th, 31st.doc

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Biology (Agric & Envir Sc)
AEBI 210
Jaswinder Singh

Organisms 1- AEBI-210 001 October 26th, 2012 Lichens Lichen Components: Symbiosis between a fungus and a photobiont such as algae or cyanobacteria Fungi can be uni- or multicellular, which have long filamentous hyphae strands Fungus provides shelter and minerals Fungal hyphae may obtain carbohydrates from the algal cells Upper cortex, algal layer, medulla, lower cortex Types of Lichens: Crustose is crust-like and grows flat against a structure Squamulose have tightly clustered, slightly flattened units Foliose have leaf-like structures which are not tightly bound Fruticose are free standing with a branching structure Reproduction: Asexual reproduction occurs by way of fungal hyphae containing algal cells Bud-like outgrowths develop on thallus and fall off to germinate Advantages of Lichens: Lichens are tolerant of extreme desiccation, and can survive for long times They produce lichen acids which weather rock, colonizing it and forming soil Lichens with cyanobacteria can supply nitrogen to the ecosystem Since lichens are sensitive to SO2 pollution, they are an indicator of pollution Lichens can be used as dyes (as in litmus paper) or eaten Slow-growing lichens can be used to date surfaces they grow on (lichenomet
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