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Lect 23: Mammals II

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Andrew Hendry

Lecture 23: Mammals II Primates, hominid evolution, central nervous system Primates • Opposable thumbs • Forward facing eyes (depth perception) – 2D on side of eyes and 3D nose in front – Gazelles (no depth perception b/c eyes lateral sides) • Big cerebrum • Social: red brood size + extended parental care Groups: Prosimians • Arboreal + nocturnal • Madagascar, SE Asia – Mad: Lemurs – not all in trees some diurnal and radiated b/c no other primates so many niches to fill • Prevalent before but now most endangered • Eg Loris (Smallest primates) • Carnivorous Arthropoids:  Eg tarsier New World vs Old World Monkeys • Pehensile tail = grasp hold objs – Not in old world – New world have them • New world have flat noses + tend to be arboreal • Eg old world: long tailed macaques, baboon, vervet • Eg new world: white faced capuchin, spider monkeys, howler monkey, vervet Gibbons, Organgutangs, African Apes • No tails • Gibbons (lesser apes): smallest of apes, arboreal • Orangutans: too large to cross trees by branches; go to ground to walk btwn them • African apes (gorrillas, chimps, hominoids) Hominoid Phylogeny • Previous Branches + Evolution to Homo sapiens • Ardipithecus ramidus skeleton: ancestor fossil suggest organism walked upright (arms not used to walk unlike chimps) but retained primitive big toe (grasp tree like ape) • Australopithecus: – 35% size of human brain size – Lucy (~ afarensis) skeleton provided evid bipedalism evolved before brains fully evolved Early Homo Sapiens Homo Habilis • Africa • First tool use • Sh
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