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Evolution of Land Plants continued

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Irene Gregory- Eaves

20/09/11 Sporophyte advantages over gametophyte 1. Genetic dosage effect: more genetic material = more metabolic activity  larger size + more complexity with increasing size 2. Has genetic cushion: extra copy to cushion against mutation Mass of plant above ground = mass below ground Angiosperms Monocots vs Dicots: - Cotelydons: one cotyledon/two cotyledon - Root system: Fibrous root/tap root - Leaf base: sheath/ peticole - No lateral branches on monocot - Leaf venation: Parallel/reticulate Modifications of stem, leaf, root for food storage, propagation, defense and mechanical support: - eg. Potato tuber = modified stem for energy storage - eg. Cactus = leaf modified to spines to avoid being eaten, water storage When seed germinates: growing points established on plant = embryonic regions (like stem cells) - Primary growth: height, apical meristem - Secondary growth: girth of stem, comes after primary growth Vascular system: - runs from tip of root to tip of shoot o transition point from large central bundles of vascular system in roots at surface of ground, branches toward outside of stem and leaves - Vascular bundles: Stem: cambrial ring in dicot, monocot scattered Root: X in dicot, ring in monocot o Xylem = dead tissue for water/minerals transport o Phloem = living cells for photosynthetic products: 65% sugars Leaves: you can tell leaves from leaflet by observing auxiliary buds - simple leaves have single blade - cuticle is a waxy substance that allows for water retention (first arose in mosses) - stomata at bottom of leaves controls water loss – open and close at will (more stomata on both surfaces in monocots) - Palisade layer: contains many chloroplasts and is close to the top for photosynthesis Material uptake from soil: Diffusion: due to internal thermal/kinetic energy 20/09/11 -from high concentration to lo
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