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BIOL 111 (283)
Lecture

Reptiles and Excretory System

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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course
BIOL 111
Professor
Irene Gregory- Eaves
Semester
Fall

Description
08/11/11 Reptiles: Many reptiles are endangered due to human activities: - over harvesting - habitat manipulation Birds and mammals have two separate circuits: Reptiles (not including birds): - Intermediary with ventricle that’s somewhat separated and 2 atria - Some reptiles can shunt blood directly to aorta underwater Reptiles: - Terrestrial - More efficient heart, breathe only through lungs - Most conserve water w/ water proof skin and scales made of keratin - Shedding of skin happens in some reptile controlled by hormones - Produce nitrogenous waste to conserve water - Reproduce on land = internal fertilization and amniotic egg Non-avian reptiles: - 6000 species - Most terrestrial - Carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous - Dry skin, scales - First amniotes: arose in carboniferous Amniotic egg = egg surrounded by extra embryonic membranes: perhaps with external shall - Shell: leathery/brittle (CaCO3) - Impermeable to water - Permeable to gases - Not present in therian mammals - Embryo surrounded amnion for protection - Yolk sac produced by embryo - Allanntois: place for storage of waste and gas exchange - Chorion for gas exchange and water conservation - All surrounded by albumen Consequences of terrestrial egg: - internal fertilization must occur: - sperm cannot penetrate egg shell, shell and albumen are added to the fertilized egg after fertilization - must have non toxic nitrogenous wastes = uric acid Excretory system: 08/11/11 - control volume concentration and composition of extra-cellular fluids and excrete wastes Osmoconformers = organisms whose extracellular fluid is equilibrated with the environment - Limits to the ability of the organism to osmoconform: too salty denatures proteins - Too dilute can’t retain min amount of nutrients and salts Osmoregulators = organisms whose extracellular fluid is held at a concentration different from the envionment: - In tadpole: hypertonic - In marine fish: hypotonic Nitrogenous wastes: ammonia, urea-polar, uric acid-non polar 1. Ammonia: water soluble, but toxic Converted into urea/uric acid Produced by ray finned fish, invertebrate and larval
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