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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Introduction to Animals.docx

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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

Lecture 10 – Introduction to Animals What is an Animal? 1. Eukaryotic:  “True” nucleus  Membrane-bound organelles 2. Heterotrophic:  Different feeding  Use pre-formed organic materials as energy and carbon source  Modes of feeding: a) predators b) herbivores c) filter feeders d) parasites f) omnivore  Most animals have internal digestion: use internal processes to break down food (as oppose to fungi, who rely on external digestion) o Most have an internal gut that is continuous with the outside environment and permits internal digestion of food items 3. Multicellularity:  Having multiple cell means: a) Cells can become specialized to carry out specific functions b) Organisms can grow in size  If you are one large cell you have a diffusion problem, because you have a low surface area: volume ration (materials can diffuse throughout smaller cells more quickly) 4. Motile at some life stages: movement reduces competition, enhance genetic diversity  Example: Barnacle (Phylum Crustacea) motile when larva, yet sessile when adults 5. Somatic (body) cells are diploid (2n)  Animals are diplontic, only the gametes are haploid  Mature organisms produce germ cells to produce a diploid zygote 6. Most animals have tissues: groups of similar cells organized into a functional unit muscular  nervous  connective  epithelial  Tissues can function together as organs to complete more complex tasks 7. No Cell Walls: how do they support their bodies?  Hydrostatic Skeleton: muscles contract against fluid-filled cavity  Exoskeleton (exo = external): nonliving covering that does not grow with the animal
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