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Lecture 20

Lecture 20 - Amniotes.docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

Amniotes The ancestor to birds was Amniote phylogeny probably a theropod dinosaur. Shared characteristics of birds and dinosaur ancestor: 1. Bipedal, 3 hind toes 2. Carnivorous 3. 4-chambered heart 4. Similar lungs 5. Feathered 6. Hollow Bones 7. Parental Care of eggs and juveniles Archaeopteryx:  “Ancient Wing”  ~150 mya (Jurassic)  11 fossil specimens  Crow-sized  Feathers and wings  bird (avian) characters  Teeth and bony tail  non-avian characters Birds (Aves):  ~ 9, 600 species  Amniotes  Endothermic  4-chambered heart (completely separate pulmonary and systemic circuits)  Feathers  Most fly  Diverse beaks; diverse diets (carnivores, herbivores, nectivores)  Example: emperor penguins Body Temperature Control = Thermoregulation  Source of heat: o Ectotherms: absorb external heat (i.e. amphibians) o Endotherms: generate their own internal heat through metabolic processes (i.e. mammals) How do endotherms generate heat? Less efficient at transforming energy (i.e. lose energy as heat when converting food into ATP or ATP into ADP) Clicker Question: What type of thermoregulation does a lion have? Endotherm A bear? Heterotherm A bee? Heterotherm Amniotes Endotherms maintain relatively constant body temperature in a lab. The mouse Endotmaintains body temperature, through metabolism. While, the lizard increases overtime. boodyy temp perrature in labb. Metabolic Rate: sum of all energy expenditures In field, lizards actually maint
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