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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111

Bio 111 Alanna Houston October 2, 2007 Summary Growth: - Growth o Energy from light o Material from air>water>soil nutrients o Various mechanisms to improve nutrient uptake - Differentiated into about a dozen cell types o Dermal (epidermis, stomatal guard cells, cork) o Ground (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma) o Vascular (xylem = tracheids + vessels = dead, phloem = sieve = live) o Water up through evaporation and cohesion o Sugar down through live part of cell osmotic pressure – water pressure *No lecture next Tuesday or Thursday or lab on Thursday Interacting with the Environment (1 of 3 challenges): - Darwin and Son’s Experiment o Conclusion: The part of the coleoptile that senses light is in the tip and it sends a signal from the tip to the growing region o - Tropisms o Phototropism: Light creates auxin, auxin concentrated on side away from the light causing lengthening in that side o - Hormones Bio 111 Alanna Houston o Grow/Spring hormones  Giberellin (stem elongation, seed germination, fruit growth)  Auxin (tall stems – stem elongation, inhibition lateral buds but promotes lateral roots  Giberellin + Auxin = tall vs. cytokinens and ethylene = wide   - Some Practical Applications o Giberellins and auxins make seedless fruits grow o Ethylene is released by ripening fruit and causes ripening  Ripen green tomatoes at the store  Why ‘one rotten apple spoils the bunch’ o Auxin – starts lateral roots on a branch cutting while suppressing lateral branches on stems - Defenses against Being Eaten o - Defenses against Drought o Lose the leaf and go back to having green stems Bio 111 Alanna Houston o Succulent stems to hold water o Ephemeral (only blooms for ~ a month when there is rain (February/march) o Stomatal adaptations o Taproots o Leaf Orientation - Defenses against water o Mangrove (pneumatophores – roots sticking up from the ground to get oxygen) o Arenchyma for flotation and or oxygen transport (lilies)
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