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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111

Bio 111 Alanna Houston November 6, 2007 - Correction: Dragonflies have incomplete metamorphosis - Evolutionary innovations: multicellularity, tissues, gut, mesoderm, head, segmentation, nervous system, anus, circulatory system, hard skeleton, coelom o Know these and where they evolved for final exam - In protostomes: central nervous system is ventral, anus is from the second opening, circularoty system has a dorsal heart, hard skeleton is external, coelom develops from schizocoely - - Splitting within the mesoderm (protostomes) - In deuterostomes: central nervous system is dorsal, anus is from the first opening, circulatory system has a ventral heart, hard skeleton is internal, coelom develops from enterocoely - - Embryonic development (protostomes vs. deuterostomes) Bio 111 Alanna Houston - - Deuterostomes have radial cleavage but sometimes protostomes also have it. Usually protostomes have spiral cleavage - Deuterostomes: echinoderms, hemichordates, chordates (urochordates, cephalochordates, vertebrates) - Echinoderms: - ~7000 species - strictly marine - benthic (bottom dwellers) - diverse modes of nutrition - ex: sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars - spiny skin - hard endoskeleton: o composed of CaCO3 plates Bio 111 Alanna Houston o continuous growth (plates enlarge and new ones are added) o covered by thin layers of skin and muscle - pentaradial symmetry (5-part symmetry) - larvae have bilateral symmetry o evolved from bilaterally symmetrical ancestor - Body plan o Anterior-posterior foreshortening o Flopped over, mouth down o - Cnidarians also have an oral/aboral surface - Bio 111 Alanna Houston - - Water Vascular System: o System of water-filled tubes o End in “tube feet” (podia) – extend through pores in endoskeleton o Used for locomotion, feeding, respiration, excretion o Sensory structures - Echinoderms have radial nerves and many sensory neurons in tube feet - Asexual reproduction: Arm may be dropped and regenerated to escape predation and decrease chance of infection o Parthenogenesis:  Development of an unfertilized egg  Whiptail lizards (only females in population) - Sexual reproduction: o Separate sexes o Broadcast spawning o External fertilization o Larvae  Planktonic, ciliated arms - Crinoids (sea lilies
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