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November 15.doc

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111

Bio 111 Alanna Houston November 15, 2007 Vertebrate Hearts: - - Amphibians are not truly terrestrial because of their dependence on water Reptiles Are Truly Terrestrial: - Breathe via lungs only - More efficient heart - Must conserve water o Skin is waterproofed by keratin o Produce a special nitrogenous waste - Reproduce and develop on land o Internal fertilization o Amniotic egg Reptiles Have Further Changes in the Heart: - Can pull blood instead of going into the lung etc. and can go into the right aorta and go directly to the body Bio 111 Alanna Houston Birds and Mammals Heart: - completely separate pulmonary and systemic system - Reptiles: - 6000 species - mostly terrestrial - carnivores, herbivores, omnivores - dry skin, scales - first amniotes o arose during Carboniferous ~ 300 mya Amniotes: - embryos closed in a fluid-filled sac - reptiles, birds mammals - some of the eggs have shells - Amniotic Egg: o Evolutionary innovation o External Shell – leathery or brittle, permeable to gases, fairly impermeable to water o Self-sufficient – requires no parental care o Bio 111 Alanna Houston o o chapter 43 Consequences of a Terrestrial Egg: - internal fertilization o sperm can not penetrate egg shell o shell and albumen are added to the fertilized egg in the female’s oviduct - non-toxic nitrogen waste product is required o uric acid Excretory Products: - substances released by the body - nitrogenous wastes o product of protein and DNA metabolism o released by excretory organs (kidneys) as well as skin and gills - CO2 o Waste product of cellular respiration o Released by respiratory surfaces - salts, ions o released by skin, gills, kidneys - water Nitrogenous Wastes: - ammonia (NH3) o very soluble in water o very toxic Bio 111 Alanna Houston o needs to be diluted and disposed of quickly or converted to a less toxic form (urea or uric acid) o bony fish, aquatic inverts and larval amphibians release this - urea o soluble in water o not toxic o less water needed for disposal o cartilaginous fish, amphibians, humans produce this - uric acid o insoluble in water o not toxic o little water needed for disposal o insects, reptiles and birds produce this o perfect for amniotic egg Water Balance - in freshwater environments: - - in marine environments: - How do aquatic animals maintain homeostasis? Osmoregulators vs. Osmoconformers: - Osmoregulators: maintain a constant concentration of ions in body fluids while environment may change - Osmoconformers: equilibrate tissue fluid to their environment - Freshwater environment lacks osmoconformers - The osmolarity of freshwater is too low for an animal to survive - Marine osmoregulators = cartilaginous fishes and invertebra
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