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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111

Bio 111 Alanna Houston September 27, 2007 ** Anywhere last lecture where ‘macrophyll’ was written; the correct term is ‘megaphyll’ - Tracheids evolved at D - Loss of free-swimming sperm evolved at J (longest thing to disappear in plant evolution) - Sporophyte gametophyte swap (sporophyte = blue, gametophyte = gold) - Plant Evolution Summary: - Major trend is switch from haploid to diploid o Green algae – diploid is unicellular o Bryophytes – diploid is Multicellular but matrotrophic o Early vascular plants, Lycopods, ferns – diploid is dominant with liverwort – like haploid independent o Seed plants – haploid is entirely within seed to provide nutrition for embryo o Due to UV radiation or more variability on land? - Evolution of roots and leaves - Evolution of more sophisticated branching structure o Thallus – forked branching – complex branching - Major land adaptations o Cuticle, matrotrophy, tracheids (Transport and support), loss of motile sperm PLANTS - GROWTH AND RESPONSE The 3 Challenges: - Energy Transformation o Photosynthesis is the source (Bio 112) o The building/growing part – what to do with energy - Responding to the environment - Reproduction - NB Angiosperms (= flowering plants) and conifers only from now on Plant Growth Differentiation: - Reproductive structures aside, even Multicellular protists (ex. Algae) and fungi had only one or two types of cells Bio 111 Alanna Houston - Plants and animals show significant differentiation of cell types specialized for particular jobs - 10 cells in plants and 200 in animals (different types of cells) Plant Cell Types/ 3 Tissue Types: - Ground Tissue (tissue in the middle) o Parenchyma – generic living cell in the middle (chloroplasts occur, toxins, photosynthesis etc.) o Collenchyma – provides support while plant is still growing (not completely rigid – ex. Hold up piece of grass, petioles of a leaf, strings in celery) Uses cellulose to become rigid o Sclerenchyma – completely rigid and does not bend. Only useful in areas where the plant is no longer growing.  Fiber – long and skinny  Scleroids – little round shaped rigid normal cells (gritty stuff in pears – mineral deposit) - Dermal Tissue o Green cover (alive – epidermis) – has stomata surrounded by two cells called guard cells that swell (closed – lose turgor pressure) o Brown cover (dead – bark) – cork, collenchyma and sclerenchyma - Vascular Tissue o Tracheids – cells overlap with each other o Vessels o Sieve tubes 3 Organs: - Plants are modular – can keep adding more leafs, roots or stems (c.f. animals – add another head!) - 3 Organs: o Leaf, Root and Stem Leaf: - Made of dermal tissue (stomata on bottom of leaf), vascular tissue, palisade tissue (photosynthesis, space for air and water) Root: Bio 111
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