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Citric Acid Cycle and Electron Transport Chain

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Frieder Schoeck

February 13, 2013 – Lecture 11 Citric Acid Cycles and Electron Transport Chain ← Pyruvate oxidation • pyruvate oxidation is catalyzed by a 60 subunit enzyme complex in the mitochondrial matrix • The acetyl group is added to coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA. 1 NADH + H+ is made ← ← Citric Acid Cycle • Pyruvate is oxidized to acetate -> acetyl CoA -> fed to citric acid cycle • Happens in mitochondrial matrix • Acetyl CoA -> citrate -> isocitrate -> alpha-ketoglutarate -> succinyl CoA -> succinate -> fumarate -> malate -> oxaloacetate o Cycle does not itself require oxygen, but it needs NAD+, which would run out without oxygen o Final products: 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, (reduced e- carriers) 1 GTP=ATP o Completely oxidizes the 2-C acetyl group to 2 CO2 with dehydrogenases ← Electron Transport Chain • Aka the respiratory chain o Uses NADH + H+ and FADH2 generated using sugar oxidation • Flow of electrons in a series of redox reactions causes the active transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton concentration gradient • Protons then diffuse through proton channels down the concentration and electrical gradient back into the matrix of the mitochondria, creating ATP • Oxidative phosphorylation: ATP synthesis by electron transport • Summary: a series of redox reactions is coupled to H+ transport ← Why are electrons from FADH2 fed later into the electron transport chain? • FADH2 cannot bind specifically to the first enzyme complex of the chain • FADH2 does not carry enough energy to reduce the first complex of the chain ← How is H+ transported? • Cytochrome c reduces cytochrome c oxidase by passing on its electrons. Oxidation of this enzyme induce
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