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BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Lecture 2.docx

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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Frieder Schoeck

HBM BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Schoeck – Lecture 2 Small Molecules 2: Bonds, Acids, and Bases Chemical Bonds Continued 3. Ionic bonds  Involves a complete transfer of one or more electrons  Ions are formed when an atom loses or gains electrons  Cations: positively charged (+) ions  Anions: negatively charged (-) ions i. Cation + Anion  Salt  These bonds are formed with oppositely charged ions attracting one another. i. i.e. Table salt, NaCl, in water dissociates. Remember, water is polar! The partial charges of water interfere with the ionic bonds and NaCl dissociates. ii. Polar molecules are hydrophilic. These dissolve in water because of hydrogen bonding.  Hydrophilic: “Water-loving”, can produce hydrogen bonding iii. Nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic. They can’t dissolve in water, but do dissolve in other nonpolar substances.  Hydrophobic: “Afraid of water”, cannot produce hydrogen bonding 4. Hydrophobic Interaction  Water forces nonpolar molecules together i. Reduces disruptive effects on hydrogen bonding amongst water molecules 5. Van der Waals Interaction  ALL molecules attract to each other with this interaction  Caused by fluctuation in electrical charg[kind of hard to explain] HBM Attraction of opposite charges Exclusion of nonpolar molecules from water Interaction due to fluctuating elec
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