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Lecture 3

BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Lecture 3.docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Frieder Schoeck

HBM BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Schoeck – Lecture 3 Buffers and Large Molecules 1: Sugars Buffers  Makes the overall solution resistant to changes in pH  Reacts with both acids and bases  Important to keep stable pH due to pH sensitive biological processes within the body  A solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base together is a buffer o Acetic acid and sodium acetate added at equal concentration to water  Titration curve  Buffers illustrate the law of mass action: Addition of reactants accelerates the reaction. Removal of products accelerates the reaction HBM Functional Groups  Functional groups give specific properties to molecules.  The two most important functional groups for biological purposes are the Carboxyl and the Amino groups!  Carboxyl has COOH form, and is acidic  Amines are basic with NH 2  The hydroxyl groups can also be called the alcohol group (e.g. ethanol in beer and wine that gets you “drunk”) having OH  Aldehyde and Ketones are under classification of the Carbonyl group, with the specific characteristic of having a carbon with a double bond to oxygen.  The phosphate group tends to give a negative charge to whatever it is within  Sulfhydryl are rather rare, and the class is Thiols, a little different than the group name. This occurs in one amino acid group [wasn’t mentioned which one] Large Molecules (Macromolecules)  Proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates are macromolecules that can form huge polymers.  Only lipids cannot form polymers!  (The big blue portion is water)  Macromolecules are made the same way in all living things and are usually in roughly same -PO42- proportions  This biochemical unity is what allows us to digest the food from plants and survive since we all have and require the same chemicals. Putting the Macros to Poly  Polymerization builds up macros to poly  Polymerization uses condensation  Condensation reactions releases an H O for each 2 covalent bond  Usually an enzyme is there to catalyze (speed up) the process.
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