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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Enzymes & Glycolysis.docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Lucy- Ann Joseph

Biol 112 Lecture 10EnzymesGlycolysis Catalysis is any substance that speeds up a chemical reactionA catalystwithout itself being used up it doesnt change the reactionsMost biological catalysts are proteins calledenzymes1Only overall reactions with negative delta G can be catalyzed 2Delta G remains the sameReactions dont start on their own they need the catalyst Catalysts are necessary to overcome the activation energy at the start of a reaction despite delta G being negative A cell cannot heat up parts of the cell so the cells need enzymes to lower the activation energy Substrate is the reactant it binds to an active siteto form the enzyme substrate complex where the reaction is catalyzed Enzymes are highly specific they catalyze exactly one reaction eg starch example with alpha helixA lot of the enzymes have parts that arent amino acidsthese parts can be any organic molecules such as ions yet they are bound more or less tightly to the enzyme and are crucial to ensuring proper functioning In addition to sugars and fats the trace elements are necessary as cofactors to catalyze certain reactions these cofactors can be metal ions zinc copper small organic molecules temporarily binding and small organic molecules that are permanently bound to the protein hemeThree ways for catalysis to work oOrienting the substance if you want to make a covalent bond you can speed up the reaction by ensuring the correct orientationoInducing strain in the molecules this is useful when hydrolysis needs to occur brings the transition state about faster oAdding charge to substrates temporarily a charge is transferred from the enzyme onto the substrate the charge ends up being transferred back so that the enzyme is unchanged The pH has to be constant because if it were changed the charges would be changedEnzymes are saturated when all binding sites are occupied maximum rateturnover from 1 molecule per
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