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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Joseph Dent

BIOLOGY 112 20101 C Aikins2SMALL MOLECULES 2 BONDS ACIDS AND BASES Ionic bondIonic bonds involve a complete transfer of one or more electronsIons are formed when an atom loses or gains electronsPolar molecules tend to by hydrophilicNonpolar molecules are called hydrophobic o They tend to aggregate with other nonpolar molecules in water hydrophobic interactionHydrophobic interactionWater foreces nonpolar molecules to minimize their disruptive effects on the hydrogenbonds in the water networkVan der WaalsNon polar molecules are also attracted to each other via relatively weak attractions van der Waals forces transient dipolesBonds covalent bond sharing electron pairhydrogen bonds attraction of opposite chargesionic bond attraction of opposite charges hydrophobic interaction exclusion of nonpolar from water van der Waals interaction interaction do to fluctuating chargesMolarityA mole is the amount of a substance in grams whose weight is equal to its molecular weight 6022142x1023 molecules 1 M1 molL1 mol NaCl23355585 gAcids and BasesAcids releasedonate H ions in solutionThe carboxyl group COOH is common in biological compounds It functions as a weak acid because it dissociates partially and reversibly o COOHCOOHBases accept H in solution release OHThe amino group NH is an important part of many biological compunds it functions as a weak base by 2partially and reversibly accepting H o NH HNH 23 pH is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration o pHlogH 107o pH 71 x 10 MLBuffersBuffers make the over all solution resistant to pH changes because they react with both added bases and acidsA solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base is a bufferBuffers illustrate the law of mass actionAddition of reactants accelerates the reaction while removal of products accelerates the reverse reaction3BUFFERS AND LARGE MOLECULES 1 SUGARS Functional groupsdont needKnow carboxylic acids carboxyl COOHAmines Amino NH 2 Alcohols Hydroxyl OHAldehydes CHO Keytones Keto CH 2 Organic phosphates Phosphate PO4 Thiols Sulfhydryl SHLarge molecules macromoleculesProteins nucleic acids and carbohydrates are called macromolecules because they can form huge polymersMacromolecules are made the same way in all living things and are present in all organisms in roughly the same proportionso Proteinsnucleic acidscarbohydrates lipidsThis biochemical unity allows organisms to acquire needed biochemicals by eating other organismsCreationdistruction of macromoleculesKnow Polymerizationo CondensationHmonomerOHHmonomerOHenzyme HpolymerOHHO 1 per covalent 2bondKnow depolymerization o HydrolysisHpolymerOHHOHmonomerOHHmonomerOH etc 2 IsomersIsomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements of the atomsKnow structural isomers and optical isomersSugarsCarbohydrates sugars act as energy storage and building blocks for other molecules nucleic acids o Serve as structural components wood o Attached to many membrane proteins and lipids and sometimes provided identity to cells human blood groupsThree major categories o Monosaccharides o Disaccharides2 monosaccharides o Polysaccharides100s1000sGeneral structureGeneral formula for a carbohydrate monomer is multiples of CHO2o 1 carbonyl several hydroxylPolymers are slightly different as water is lost during condensationStraight vs chain formglucose Exists as straight chain and ring ring form predominateglucose glucose exist in equilibrium o glucose 2OH is trans HOH 2o glucose2OH is cis HOH 2 glycosidic linkagesDisaccharides o maltose straight chain14 linko celloboise ALWAYS straight14 link o polysaccharides
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