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Lecture 10

DENT LECTURE 10 Gene Regulation.pdf

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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course
BIOL 112
Professor
Lucy- Ann Joseph
Semester
Winter

Description
DENT LECTURE 10 Gene RegulationMain difference in diff cells Gene regulationAll cells in your body share the same alleles of the same genes Cells appear different because they express different genesCommon is all types of cells Housekeeping genesie RNA polymerase genes that all cells must express that are necessary for basic functionsof metabolism transcription etcATranscriptional regulationThe main diff between cells in diff tissues is that they transcribediff subsets of genesEukaryotes is similar to prokaryotesThe ability of the RNA polymerase to begin transcription is controlledPromoter elements requiredAccessory proteins that recognize regulatory DNA sequences are involvedEukaryotes dont have operators they have enhancersPromoters includes everal elements Gcbox CAAT box TATA boxThree eukaryotic RNA polymerasesPol I rRNAPol II mRNAPol III tRNA snRNA etcCells that do not express a protein also do not express the mRNAfor that proteinRegulation of the transcription of a particular gene controlling whatproteins will be presentWhat is regulatedis the ability of theRNA polymeraseto initiate transcription which is determined bythe promoter elementin both eukaryotes and prokaryotes that are used to recognized the beginningsof genesDifference between prokaryotes and eukaryotesOne important difference is that Eukaryotes have three RNA polymerasesPol I rRNAPol II mRNAPol III tRNA snRNA etcPolymerase doesnt just bind DNA and transctibe Several otherproteins of the TFII family Transciption Factor for Pol IImust form toprepare the way The main one is TFIID a complex of proteins that binds the TATA box DNARegulator proteinbind to the promoter to help recruit thepolymerase and activate it and license it to transcribe the geneThe eukaryote promoter elementusually consists of a TATA box 25 bp upstreamanda few other types of regulator sequences50150 bp upstream eg CAAT box GC box Oct elementIn prokaryotes the RNA polymerase directly starts transcribingWhere as in eukaryotes RNA polymerase itself doesnt recognize the DNA there are series oftranscription factors TFsthat do the recognition and recruit theRNA polymerase PromoterEnhancers and Silencers control transcription unique to eukaryotes What distinguishes from promoter elements BIOL Page 1
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