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Lecture 11

DENT LECTURE 11 Biotechnology Genetic Engineering.pdf

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Lucy- Ann Joseph

DENT LECTURE 11 Biotechnology Genetic EngineeringA practical use of our understanding of heredityGenetic Engineering changing the phenotype by changing its DNA to make it more usefuldesirableGene cloning taking a single gene form one organism and putting it in another organismSelective breeding technologyie domestication of plants and animalsUsed to domesticate animals and plantsOnly technology required is the ability to select and breed the next generationCan wait for useful mutations to arise by chance andor cross two related specieslimitationsMust wait a long time for the right gene to mutate into a new formiMust be able to cross two closely related speciesiiEx CabbageRadishCadish result leafy part of radish and roots of cabbageTT Why cloneTo make an organism express a new phenotype1To understand how the gene itselfworks in isolation2Example Diabetes and Insulincloning a gene to make bacteria produce a useful proteinAbout diabetesYour bodyregulates the amount of glucoseusing only a relatively small number of cells called beta islet cellsin your pancreasThey sense the amount of glucose and release the hormone insulinwhich signals to the rest of the body that glucose is served liver cells should start absorbing glucose from the blood stream When low on glucose the hormone glucagon is released to tell the liver to release glucose into the blood for other cells to eatIn diabetes the islet cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction thus your body no longer has any way to know when glucose is served Even if
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