Glucose + 2 ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ -> 2 pyruvate + 2 net ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O
IF oxygen is lacking as the final electron acceptor, fermentation would take place. Glycolysis would
produce ethanol in yeast along with carbon dioxide. Muscle would produce lactic acid.
Pyruvate has 3 paths, 1 of which requires the presence of Coenzyme A to produce acetyl coA (produces
1 CO2), while the other two would produce acetaldehyde into ethanol and lactace, both of which
Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol, while the pyruvate oxidation takes place in the mitochondria matrix.
NAD+ into NADH requires the gaining of 2 ei and 1 proton from substrates onto NAD+. Leaving behind a
Regulation of Glycolysis:
Gluconeogenesis: synthesis of glucose from pyruvate. How does the body balance glycolysis and
gluconeogenesis? They negatively regulate each other.
The gibb’s free energy in the glycolysis process of many reactions are nearly 0, making them highly
Three irreversible steps exist due to the highly negative dG of these reactions. These 3 processes are the
addition of the first phosphate producing glucose 6 phosphate, the addition of the 2 phosphate to
produce fructose 1,6 bisphosphate and the final production of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate.
The irreversibly catalyzed steps are allosterically regulated by ATP. ATP is then able to prevent the
breakdown of glucose. G-6P also inhibit the production of itself. The presence of AMP is able to produce
catalytic effects, and F2,6 BP both catalyze change of F2,6 BP into F16BP. Finally, F16BP also catalyze the
change from phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate.
PFK (phosphofrucokinase) is the enzyme that adds a phosphate onto F6P.
ADP + ADP -> ATP + AMP. This explains how consumption of ATP produces AMP.
Citric acid when no