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Lecture 5

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 201
Greg Brown

Lecture 5 Glucose + 2 ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ -> 2 pyruvate + 2 net ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O IF oxygen is lacking as the final electron acceptor, fermentation would take place. Glycolysis would produce ethanol in yeast along with carbon dioxide. Muscle would produce lactic acid. Pyruvate has 3 paths, 1 of which requires the presence of Coenzyme A to produce acetyl coA (produces 1 CO2), while the other two would produce acetaldehyde into ethanol and lactace, both of which regenerate NAD+. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol, while the pyruvate oxidation takes place in the mitochondria matrix. NAD+ into NADH requires the gaining of 2 ei and 1 proton from substrates onto NAD+. Leaving behind a H+. Regulation of Glycolysis: Gluconeogenesis: synthesis of glucose from pyruvate. How does the body balance glycolysis and gluconeogenesis? They negatively regulate each other. The gibb’s free energy in the glycolysis process of many reactions are nearly 0, making them highly reversible. Three irreversible steps exist due to the highly negative dG of these reactions. These 3 processes are the nd addition of the first phosphate producing glucose 6 phosphate, the addition of the 2 phosphate to produce fructose 1,6 bisphosphate and the final production of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate. The irreversibly catalyzed steps are allosterically regulated by ATP. ATP is then able to prevent the breakdown of glucose. G-6P also inhibit the production of itself. The presence of AMP is able to produce catalytic effects, and F2,6 BP both catalyze change of F2,6 BP into F16BP. Finally, F16BP also catalyze the change from phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate. PFK (phosphofrucokinase) is the enzyme that adds a phosphate onto F6P. ADP + ADP -> ATP + AMP. This explains how consumption of ATP produces AMP. Citric acid when no
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