Netproduction of 4 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP through the process. Added with the production of glycolysis
and pyruvate oxidation, the total then would result in 8 NADH, 2 FADH2 and 4 ATP. 2 NADH are
produced through the pyruvate oxidation process. Oxaloacetate conc. is very low in the mitochondria.
The final step in reforming oxaloacetate is possible due to the Le Chatelier’s Principle, since as soon as
oxaloacetate is formed it is consumed, the equilibrium will ALWAYS be pushed towards the formation of
oxaloacetate. Many of the enzymes are associated with each other in order to speed up the reaction
and make it more efficient. However, the succinate dehydrogenase is a part of the inner membrane.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase is negatively regulated by ATP and NADH, but is enhanced by ADP. The
ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is negatively regulated by the same, and also succinyl CoA.
The intermediate products of the kreb’s cycle serve as the precursors for other molecules. Citrate could
be used for fatty acids and sterols, ketoglutarate for glutamate into purines and other aas. Succinyl coA
could be made into porphyrins, heme and chlorophyll. Oxaloacetate into aspartate, nucleic acids and
Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Lipids could be broken into glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol can be further metabolized by glycolysis.
Fatty acids can be converted into fatty acyl CoA, then into acetyl CoA, which is then served for the kreb’s
Peroxisomes and mitochondria use the same method to oxidize fatty acids. However, the final electron
acceptors differ between the two organelles. Fatty acyl CoA is reduced into 2 carb