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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 202
Daniel Schoen

Sarah Margareta Ibrahim▯ Monday, January 7th 2013 BIOL 202 - Basic Genetics Lecture #1 - Introduction Reading: Ch. 1 (p.1-25) Administrative stuff Conferences begin on Jan. 21st - 1.5 hours/week (see schedule on myCourses) Textbook: Introduction to Genetic Analysis 10th ed. Midterm Exam: Thursday 21 February 6-8pm (will be 1.5 hours long) Midterm Exam (all multiple choice) - 35% (Lectures 1-14) Final (multiple choice and short answer) - 65% (Lectures 15-37) Overview of Genetics • Biologists are interested in how organisms function. They ask questions about biological function. • Biologists use a reductionist approach. • A geneticist searches for mutations (in natural populations or a mutation that they may create in some way with chemicals or with radiation). These mutations disrupt function. Geneticists learn about function by studying mutations. You can learn something by comparing the mutant form of the organism and non-mutant organism and through this you can infer some things - this is called genetic dissection. • Lets say youʼre interesting in curing a genetic disease, if you know what that gene does, you might be able to develop a therapy based on substituting for individuals who have a mutation that causes that disease. • Molecular biology gave us the tools for geneticists to manipulate the code and allowed cell biology/biochemistry to communicate with genetics. Approaches in Genetics 1. Forward Genetics We look for natural mutations. Make crosses between phenotypes that differ and look at offspring ratios. We look for the genetic control of that trait - does it look like its controlled by a single gene? Does it look like its controlled by many genes? Does it even have a genetic basis? So in a nutshell: make crosses between genes, note offspring ratio and infer the molecular and developmental differences which could lead you to identifying the DNA sequence. Weʼre going forward from the different forms (form the mutations) down to the DNA sequences. ▯ 1 Sarah Margareta Ibrahim▯ Monday, January 7th 2013 2. Reverse Approach You start out with a particular mutation - could a be a mutation tot the code itself ie. you could induce a mutation with a chemical compound in a particular region of the genome, in a particular DNA sequence OR you could mess around with the transcript of that DNA sequence (so the mRNA) OR you could mess with the protein. So now that youʼve done something to the message: does it have an effect on the phenotype? In many cases it has no effect on the phenotype or just a very subtle effect. But in some cases it has a profound
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