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Lecture 9

BIOL215 Lecture 9 Notes.pdf

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 215
Neil Price

BIOL215 Lecture 9 Notes Gene regulation: which genes are transcribed into messenger RNA, which transcripts are translated into proteins, and which proteins are activated, are the result of interactions that often begin with signals that initiate different genetic regulatory pathways or networks. Mutations do very bad things to the individual for the most part, but occasionally a mutation occurs which confers some sort of advantage given with respect to the particular environment you are placed in In gene regulation, we are talking about DNA mutations; specifically the place where the gene is turned on or turned off Epigenetics are changes that don't change the DNA. Tinkering: most of evolution is through mutations in this complex regulation of the genes. If you have a mutation in a part that prevents the repressor from binding, you cannot get transcription in this gene or if you get a mutation in another part of the process, you get tinkering, which is what we believe causes most of evolution Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells: •Three major regulatory mechanisms control transcription of DNA -> mRNA: cis- (when mutation occurs in the regulatory region of the DNA itself; affects binding transcription of the gene or promotor), trans- (if protein A is binding to this part of DNA, and the change in occurs in this protein that doesn't allow it to bind, it is trans-), and RNAi-regulation •Transposons • Are segments of DNA that can produce special transpoase enzymes • Produce special transposase enzymes that allow
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