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Lecture 20

BIOL215 Lecture 20 Notes.pdf

3 Pages
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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 215
Professor
Neil Price

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BIOL215 Lecture 20 Notes Review: Population: a group of individuals from one species that occupy the same space at the same time In population biology, population will grow as a function of birth and immigration while population will decrease as a function of death and emigration A variety of equations that allow you to move from move the size of a population at time t to the size of a population at t+1 What is survivorship and reproduction? Examine different types of species with different survivorship patterns (Type 1, 2, 3). Different ways of summarizing the population vital statistics which are survivorship and reproduction Distinction between cohort table (all the individuals born at the same time and follow them through time) and static table (going into a population at one time and trying to understand the birth and death of that population based on what you see at that one moment) Equations for net reproductive rate, generation time, instantaneous rate of increase, and geometric growth Understand the impact of net reproductive rate on the growth of a population will depend on the generation time (the time it takes between two generations). Those two equations allow us to calculate the instantaneous rate of increase in a population Geometric growth and exponential growth has the same curve shape, but in geometric growth, you have discrete episode of reproduction like in annual plants, they reproduce in one year, everyone dies and then the next year, a new generation is born. In exponential growth, it is continuous reproduction but that yields the same sort of growth form The prairie chicken is a good example of a declining population One of the most important reasons why we looked at applications of demography is because it is important in conservation and allows us to make diagnostic about populations that are declining and to help us better manage those populations For geometric/exponential growth, it will apply to populations that will keep growing and growing without stopping In realistic terms, populations will follow the logistic growth where the size of a population will reach a plateau where it reaches a carrying capacity (the moment where the population stops growing) Growth: the change of individual over time Population size: the number of individual at a given time Carrying capacity: the number of individual where the environment cannot sustain anymore individual At carrying capacity, the population number stops, population number stabilizes, and growth stops. Population growth rate is maximum when the size of population is equal to carrying capacity divided by two. This application has been used to manage fishery and the challenges associated with the fishing industry From deterministic to probabilistic models. The models studied so far are predicting one exact outcome. Biological systems are probabilistic Species interaction competition - the interaction between different species. This is the realm of community ecology. Community: looks at many species that cohabit in the same space at the same time Intraspecific competition - why do species keep growing if we're looking population under logistic equation? It is because individual of the same species are fighting for the same resources Interspecific competition: competition between two different species fighting for resources In competition, we examined different ways of avoiding competition. Example is wobbler that forage in different places in different trees. We also looked at the fact that competition is a structuring factor in competition A second type of interaction between species is predation. Understand coupled models of predator- prey and the cycling of the model (abundance of prey controls abundance of predators) To cope with predation, we know species take refuge via shelters, numbers, size, aposematic coloration such as the "Batesian" mimics in snakes Different types of interactions such as mutualism, parasitism, and herbivory and make relationship between these and earlier interactions Understand density-dependence: the more abundant the individual, the stronger the interaction between individuals. Density-dependence is something that plays in population, that will
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