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Lecture 5

BIOL215 Lecture 5 Notes.pdf

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Department
Biology (Sci)
Course
BIOL 215
Professor
Neil Price
Semester
Fall

Description
BIOL215 Lecture 5 Notes Evolutionary Biology is a historical science. This means we must INFER history - it only happens once Inferring evolutionary history: •Phylogeny: The course of evolution from past to present •Phylogenetic tree: A graphical representation of the course of evolution from past to present •The anatomy of a phylogenetic tree: • Nodes: Internal nodes (open circles), Terminal nodes (closed circles), Root node (open circle) • Branches: Internal branches (dotted lines), Terminal branches (solid lines) •See chart for number of OTUs (operation taxonomic units) in comparison to number of rooted trees. It goes up by exponential factor... •In order to build phylogenetic trees, we need: • Data (from fossil record and modern taxa): • Morphology • DNA • Methods: Parsimony • • Maximum Likelihood • Distance • Bayesian methodology Principle of Convergence (Independent Evolution) - it poses a harder problem for reconstructing history because organisms start looking like each other that are unrelated See diagram on major evolutionary transitions and lifestyles Is there an evolutionary bias? Is there a direction in evolution? We can't prove that there is a direct step from monkey to humans. We shared a common ancestor with chimps and apes, but we are not direct descendants of apes The transition from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms occurred at least 13 t
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