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BIOL215 Lecture 26 Notes.pdf

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 215
Neil Price

BIOL215 Lecture 26 Notes Synthesis of FACE CO en2ichment experiments have shown that the plant community responds quite differently than plants in greenhouses. When you have more realism to the real world, the effects are more muted to CO response 2 Locating the missing carbon sink is not in the tropical lands. While NPP does increase in tropical lands, deforestation and respiration by decomposers offsets that increase in NPP so that NEP is negative in terms of carbon balance. Two hypothesis of NEP in Northern lands is sequestering a fairly large amount of carbon at ecosystem level: • Agricultural lands that were previously used and were abandoned are now re-growing resulting in succession and growth of biomass in plants All the nitrogen being released through human activity is fertilizing the land in temperate and • boreal forests Impact of CO o2 animals? • No direct effect on consumers • There is evidence of indirect effect when looking at herbivores (leaf miner density). When there was an elevated CO , 2he plants respond to it but due to an unbalance of high C:N, the plant will have poor nutritional quality • Herbivores that feed on the plant tissue that's been grown under the high CO condi2ions, have very low conversion efficiency. The total consumption therefore increases slightly to compensate the poor food quality. Even so, the herbivores are not able to make much secondary production because the C:N ratio is too high or in other words, the leaf material is not of high quality to allow for high rates of secondary production • Conversion efficiency is production divided by ingestion (P /In. Impact of CO on climate/global change and how climate change is influencing ecology: 2 • A changing global environment What's changing? • • Ecological responses to climate change: • Phenology • Range • Community Composition • Ecosystem function The concern at the moment is the rate of temperature change in current society The connection between CO and 2emperature on Earth is a strong relationship. An increase in CO in 2 the atmosphere is a concern of enhancing the Greenhouse effect and warming the planet From an ecosystem level observing the map of Europe's warmest autumn in 500 years, the removal of ice in the Arctic will change the dynamic of the Arctic ecosystem not to mention animal life that requires ice for hunting and survival We need to be able to distinguish between variability and change Climate is what you expect (long term average), weather is what you get The average pattern of weather (climate) over the long term is changing. The long term average weather of a region includes typical weather patterns, the frequency and intensity of storms, cold spells, and heat waves Climate is changing - temperature increased by 0.6 degrees Celsius during the 20th century • Predicted to alter the hydrological cycle, and thus ocean- atmosphere interaction: Global consequences • Areas of the globe where evaporation will be more intense, precipitation will be more intense. In fact, the pattern of precipitation on land and on sea is likely to change because of this change in temperature • Most of the water that evaporates evaporate from the ocean Global change and global systems: • the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a large-scale atmospheric and ocean phenomenon that influences ecological systems on a global scale - responsible for climate variability around the g
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