For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.
Canada in the Age of the Revolution
21/09/2011 6:32:00 AM
1) possible of enlightened British rule, through mechanisms of consent and
trade (1750’s, 1760’s, 1770’s).
2) Crash boom bang (1170s-1790s) American Revolution, French Revolution
collapse of the dream, and the violent shocks that happens
brits thought americans were part of their peoples, but different
issues and agendas
french – put them on wartime footing, middle of war is not good
time to be enlightened.
3) Colonial policy/hermeneutics of suspicion: consensual forms but
authoritarian rule (1790s to 1840s)
Quebec is a ruin, destroyed.
Every once in a while, Canada becomes very important to England.
Impact of Conquest (1760) and Treaty of Paris (1763):
Sets off chain of events leadin to Atlantic Revolutions (by annoying
the Americans and bankrupting the French)
Britain is seen to win because it has a prosperous, commercial society that is
responsive to public opinion (in contrast to French despotic monarchy)
*England has a higher standard of living – leading the way in
buying new stuff, coffee, tea, sugar, etc. Long before industrial
revolution. The more the poor people buy, the harder/longer they
work, more money for british government to tax (more productivity
for more demand of these products).
But not clear how to govern British subjects in north America according to
Britishness will take a beating and British rights will be watered down in
3 different peoples, 3 different problems
1) Indigenous peoples around the Great Lakes are immediately
disenchanted by British rule: Pontiac’s uprising in 1763
o Resolved with Royal Proclamation of 1763 and separate peace
One of the most important documents in imperial
How Canadians are going to be governed by the French
*check this fact
Divides up indian territory – only formal treaties can
arrange a change
Basis of modern system of treaties in Canada
o British have better reputation with Indians than France
2) disenchantment in existing (American) colonies due to
disconnect between local and imperial legislature
o they resent paying a war tax voted in an imperial parliament
in which they have no representation
no taxation without representation – refutation of
british political principles
o they resent the Royal Proclamation that prevents them from
grabbing indigenous lands
o they represent the accommodations made for Catholics in
If you’re catholic, you owe allegiance to a foreign
power, assumed you’re always plotting to overcome
your protestant king
3) the 80 000 or so Catholic, French-speaking peoples of Quebec.
How can they be given institutions of self government that are
fundamental to any project of British rule?
Formal policy is assimilation; practical policy on the ground is
o Quebec civil laws remain active (alternative is abolition of all
existing property relations)
o Catholics can take part in juries, other public offices
No lawyers in New France
Wanted to attract immigrants
Guy Carleton, Lord Dorchester reshapes imperial policy to reflect
colonial practices in the Quebec Act of 1774.
Quebec Act of 1774; Catholicism and French property WEB CT *
American invasion of Canada is badly defeated * WEB CT