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Canadian Studies – Sept 12th
13000-15000 years humans have been here
Barren Strait – the land bridge which existed roughly 15,000 years ago –
Alaska and Siberia.
18000 years ago, Global sea levels were at a 125 metre difference
From this time, a lot of change in the costal environments has emerged
Coldest temperatures climate that the earth has seen in a very long time
Tells us the context in which early occupants of America arrived.
There is very early evidence, human remains and extinct species,
stones/arrow heads embedded with animals.
How did they live? Hunter/gatherer. Some more mobile than others.
Important part of their adaptation has to do with large social herbivores
have to gather intellect about animals, their habits in order to learn how to
control them as a resource.
Main technological material is stone,
2 main problems: material – right access to the right materials at the right
Environment changing very fast because of de-glaciation rising.
Stability is gone, environments are diversifying
What they had been doing doesn’t work anymore, have to start living on
something else putting significant restraints on what you do
Things changed over the 12-14000 year period by the 8000 year area
The importance of contact, creating networks is a massive link between the
first people and us.
In a low-density population in a very big place, trading networks work as
partner exchange. How are they maintained with a small population and
Old copper complex – finding native copper – in a natural form, no extraction
needed – used to trade around.
Needed person “trade” networking in case of local disturbances – having
three sons in a row compared to three daughters (local carrying capacity).
Women were more desirable (in moderation) to populate the nations. You
need access to a wide enough network to insulate yourself locally.
Social conflict theory/social contract theory
Humans solve their problems by killing each other, controlling labour of each
other. Interactions are necessary and must continue.
Spread of ideology, will give access to so many different kinds of resources
Various networks sprout – reduces mobility and begin to plan resource
management in a different way
Settled communities often produce specialists that go out and trade.