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Lecture 6

CANS 310 Lecture Notes - Elijah Harper, Oka Crisis, Harold Cardinal
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by OneClass535607 , Fall 2016
3 Pages
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Department
Canadian Studies
Course Code
CANS 310
Professor
Shelly Butler
Lecture
6

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CANS310 Lecture VI: Notes
I. Introduction
MyCourses has updated material to contextualize the NFB film on Idlout
Misrecognition and appropriation
Project of dispossession of land
II. The Inconvenient Indian Chapters 8-10 [End]
Big Picture Timeline
i. Early-era of relative native-newcomer harmony: cultural exchange, economic
trade, military alliances (in the East), and treaties, including the Royal
Proclamation of 1763
1. Dependency on Native knowledge
2. Royal Proclamation accommodates two parties through cooperation,
sovereign and independent countries made into expediencies and not
honoured/only honoured vaguely
ii. Marginalization: Coincides with Confederation (1867), settlement, agriculture,
immigration. Includes Indian Act of 1876: segregationist and assimilationist.
iii. Politicization, Resistance and Cultural Renaissance: 1940 onwards.
A definition of culture (as lived experience)
Culture and Colonialism Quote
i. Culture “set of learned behaviours and ideas that human beings use both to
pursue their interests and to identify the interests they ought to pursue.”
1. Learned
2. Behaviours and beliefs
3. System for making sense of lives and creating our future
4. Conflict within and between cultures way forward
5. Meanings are negotiated and contested within and between cultures
ii. “The essence of colonization inheres less in political overrule than in sizing and
transforming “others” by the very act of conceptualizing, inscribing and interacting
with them on terms not of their choosing; in making them into the pliant objects
and silences subjects of our scripts and scenarios”
1. ~Jean and John Comaroff, South Africa 1991
2. Relationship of Colonialism and Culture
a. Pure political power AS WELL AS a cultural process
b. Colonizers defining the colonized ethno/Euro-centic terms that
failed to see Indigenous culture as being its own
c. Questions of voice controlling one’s self/community
(Representation)
III. Laws, Policies and Practices to force assimilation and Relocation
Indian Act and related amendments, 1867-onward: for “controlling the lives and
destinies of Legal Indians” (King, 70).
i. 1885 banning of dance
ii. 1891 municipal appropriation for public works
iii. 1927 crime to solicit funds for Indians
iv. 1930 banned pool
v. 1985 C-31, regain status
Policies as ideals, cultural blueprints
i. Enfranchised “to be liberated” – irony.
1. Encourage assimilation, Indian lands become owned by the Crown,
administration of chiefs and band councils to create
uniformity/bureaucracy
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Description
CANS310 – Lecture VI: Notes I. Introduction • MyCourses has updated material to contextualize the NFB film on Idlout • Misrecognition and appropriation • Project of dispossession of land II. The Inconvenient Indian – Chapters 8-10 [End] • Big Picture Timeline i. Early-era of relative native-newcomer harmony: cultural exchange, economic trade, military alliances (in the East), and treaties, including the Royal Proclamation of 1763 1. Dependency on Native knowledge 2. Royal Proclamation  accommodates two parties through cooperation, sovereign and independent countries  made into expediencies and not honoured/only honoured vaguely ii. Marginalization: Coincides with Confederation (1867), settlement, agriculture, immigration. Includes Indian Act of 1876: segregationist and assimilationist. iii. Politicization, Resistance and Cultural Renaissance: 1940 onwards. • A definition of culture (as lived experience) • Culture and Colonialism Quote i. Culture  “set of learned behaviours and ideas that human beings use both to pursue their interests and to identify the interests they ought to pursue.” 1. Learned 2. Behaviours and beliefs 3. System for making sense of lives and creating our future 4. Conflict within and between cultures  way forward 5. Meanings are negotiated and contested within and between cultures ii. “The essence of colonization inheres less in political overrule than in sizing and transforming “others” by the very act of conceptualizing, inscribing and interacting with them on terms not of their choosing; in making them into the pliant objects and silences subjects of our scripts and scenarios” 1. ~Jean and John Comaroff, South Africa 1991 2. Relationship of Colonialism and Culture a. Pure political power AS WELL AS a cultural process b. Colonizers defining the colonized  ethno/Euro-centic terms that failed to see Indigenous culture as being its own c. Questions of voice – controlling one’s self/community (Representation) III. Laws, Policies and Practices to force assimilation and Relocation • Indian Act and related amendments, 1867-onward: for “controlling the lives and destinies of Legal Indians” (King, 70). i. 1885 – banning of dance ii. 1891 – municipal appropriation for public works iii. 1927 – crime to solicit funds for Indians iv. 1930 – banned pool v. 1985 – C-31, regain status • Policies as ideals, cultural blueprints i. Enfranchised – “to be liberated” – irony. 1. Encourage assimilation, Indian lands become owned by the Crown, administration of chiefs and band councils to create uniformity/bureaucracy 2. Banning of potlatch – offends European cultural values – reciprocity and community through giving of goods, religious dances a. Internalized share, despite authoritarian legislation, practices go underground 3. Paternalistic “welfare” • Residential Schools, 1840s-onwards: (Scott, 1913-32): “I want to get rid of the Indian problem” (King, 72). Mandatory “total institution” court cases, class action lawsuit (2005) leads to settlement (2006) and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) i. Extensive, run by government and churches, forcible removal ii. Total institutions  prisons, military, boarding schools 1. Level of the body  haircuts (affront to cultural identity), punishment & abuse, malnourishment, underfunded schools, mandatory attendance 2. TRC result of court cases (with regards to abuse), church apologies, royal commission of 1996 (King – ‘swept under the carpet’), class-action suit leads to settlement, compensation & TRC • Removals, 1940s-onwards in Canada, intensifying with post-WWII, hydroelectric projects (James Bay, Québec). i. Land removals – (King, 85): points out about America, then highlights how Canada is similar (and different) than the US, but follows the same logic ii. Today to do with pipelines – border is irrelevant iii. Symbolic versus action level • 1969 Trudeau White Paper – protested and blocked i. Trudeau addressed the inequality through assimilation ii. P
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