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Lecture 14

CANS 406 Lecture Notes - Human Rights Watch, Genital Modification And Mutilation, Forced Exposure
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2 Pages
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Winter 2018

Department
Canadian Studies
Course Code
CANS 406
Professor
Desmond Morton
Lecture
14

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Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in War
-SGBV is broader category than just rape
-It is a diverse category
-Human Rights Watch: “Gender-based violence is violence directed at an individual, male or
female, base don his or her specific gender role in society”
-SGBV expands our ideas about the costs of war this is usually looked at economically or in
terms of deaths
-Takes into account more individuals and how they might be affected by war
-Includes: rape, coerced undressing, non-penetrative sexual assault, domestic violence, forced
impregnation/abortion, forced marriage, sexual slavery, sexual mutilation, forced exposure to
pornography, trafficking, imposition of virginity tests, sex-selective massacres, recruitment,
being forced to rape
-SGBV has come to be seen as a security issue
-4th Geneva Convention: “women shall be especially protected against any attach on their honor,
in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault”
-Sets out main elements of international law in terms of the conduct of war
-Talk of honor and dignity makes it seem that women’s honor is lost when they are assaulted or
raped, it is reductive
-Rome Statute of the ICC: recognizes that rape and sexual violence can be a crime against
humanity, especially when committed as a “widespread of systematic attack”, as well as
provisions for trying these acts as war crimes
-Really specific criteria for them to qualify as crimes
-The law is always a step behind the practice of war
-Lack of accountability for rape and gender-based violence in conflict
-SGBV is not always a strategic tool of war it occurs for other reasons
-SGBV is often seen as inevitable, inherent to military life, a natural element of war
-Reflects the idea that men have untamable sexual needs, that rape is a spoil of war
-SGBV as a reflection of the collapse of state institutions and social norms, where war negates
normal circumstances/social practices
-Rape/SGBV as a tool to advance genocide, ethnic cleansing, humiliation of the opponent
Cohen finds this isn’t applicable universally
-Fear/threat of SGBV clears civilian populations, drives people out (Syria)
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Description
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in War -SGBV is broader category than just rape -It is a diverse category -Human Rights Watch: Gender-based violence is violence directed at an individual, male or female, base don his or her specific gender role in society -SGBV expands our ideas about the costs of war this is usually looked at economically or in terms of deaths -Takes into account more individuals and how they might be affected by war -Includes: rape, coerced undressing, non-penetrative sexual assault, domestic violence, forced impregnation/abortion, forced marriage, sexual slavery, sexual mutilation, forced exposure to pornography, trafficking, imposition of virginity tests, sex-selective massacres, recruitment, being forced to rape -SGBV has come to be seen as a security issue -4 Geneva Convention: women shall be especially protected against any attach on their honor, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault -Sets out main elements of international law in terms of the conduct of war -Talk of honor and dignity makes it seem that womens honor is lost when they are assaulted or raped, it is reductive -Rome Statute of the ICC: recognizes that rape and sexual violence can be a crime against humanity, especially when committed as a widespread of systematic attack, as well as provisions for trying these acts as war crimes -Really specific criteria for them to qualify as crimes -The law is always a step behind the practice of war -Lack of accountability for rape and gender-based violence in conflict -SGBV is not always a strategic tool of war it occurs for other reasons -SGBV is often seen as inevitable, inherent to military life, a natural element of war -Reflects the idea that men have untamable sexual needs, that rape is a spoil of war -SGBV as a reflection of the collapse of state institutions and social norms, where war negates normal circumstances/social practices -Rape/SGBV as a tool to advance genocide, ethnic cleansing, humiliation of the opponent Cohen finds this isnt applicable universally -Fear/threat of SGBV clears civilian populations, drives people out (Syria) -Playing on the strategic use of rape in war can distort the understanding that rape in war often has little to do with military strategy -Baaz and Stern note that we cant understand SGBV without thinking about masculinity/femininity and power relations -Baaz+ Stern: Lust rape is more acceptable, driven by unmet sexual needs -This has to do with men not having enough resources to provide for their wives and keep them or to pay for prostitutes the normal way -Evil rapes are driven by anger and rage, where war drives people crazy and frustrations about poverty and failure to provide for themselves/families lead to frustration and unmanageable anger -Both of these forms of rape are connected to failures to meet expectations of idealized masculinity, issues of poverty, frustration, or power -Enloe talks about recreational, national security, and systematic mass rape -Evil rape doesnt really fit into any of these categories it is more focused on ideas of rape in conflict where ideas of the state and nationality arent relevant -Multiple perpetrator rape (gang rape) is more common in war than otherwise in Sierra Leone, 75% of reported rape was gang rape -Groups that recruit forc
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