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Chapter 9 - The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties.docx

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CHEM 110
Ariel Fenster

October 4 , 2011 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties 9.1 – Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table Periodic Law: when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically. 3 Molar Volume = molar mass x 1/d (cm /g) Restated Periodic Law: similar properties recur periodically when elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number. Description of a Modern Periodic Table: The Long Form 18 groups of elements: arranged in order of increasing atomic number from left to right  First 2 blocks: s block and p block (constitute the main group elements)  d block constitutes the transition metals  f block constitutes the inner transition metals; lanthanides and actinides 9.2 – Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions Characteristics of Metals:  Good conductors of heat and electricity  Malleable and ductile  Moderate to high melting points Characteristics of Non-Metals:  Nonconductors of heat and electricity  Brittle  Solids and gas at room temperature Metalloids: elements that look like metals, may behave like metals but have some nonmetallic properties Noble Gases: Have the maximum number of electrons permitted in the valence shell of an atom.  Very difficult to alter, high degree of chemical inertness to the noble gases Main Group Metal Ions: Group 1 and 2 – the most active metals  Differ from those of the noble gas of the preceding period by only one or two electrons  Metals tend to lose electrons to obtain electron configurations of noble gases Main Group Nonmetal Ions: Group 17 and 16 – the most active nonmetals  One and two electrons fewer than the noble gas  Gaining the appropriate numbers of electrons Hydrogen:  Hydrogen does not have a definite place in the periodic table October 4 , 2011 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties  One electron  Group 1; even though it is a nonmetal and appears to have some metallic when subjected to pressures  Hydrogen does not resemble the halogens very much, as it is a reducing agent 9.3 – Sizes of Atoms and Ions Atomic Radius Internuclear distance; between the nuclei of two atoms joined by a chemical bond. 9-12: Why is there an uncertainty when it comes to the exact size of an atom? - This uncertainty is due to the electron cloud which surrounds the atom; as it has no fixed limit Covalent Radius: one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms joined by one single covalent bond. Ionic Radius: the dis
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