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11.3 Hybridization

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CHEM 110
Ariel Fenster

Vallencce BBonndd Thheooryy Vaalenncee Boondd Thheeorry Application: Limitation: Can be used to explain the Doesn't de11. 3 – Hybridization bonding of molecules of molecules  Atom must go from ground s"Basic" excited state by absorbing energy and"Basic" promoting an electron  The number of hybrid orbitals equals the total number of atomic orbitals that areTheeoory combined. Application: Limitation:  Hybridization occurs only when the bonds are being formed  Energy and the number of orbitals is conserved Doesn't describe the geometry bonding of molecules of molecules Hybridization: process of replacing pure atomic orbitals with reformulated atomic orbitals for bonded atoms sp hybridization Hybridization Hydrid Orbital: the new orbital Example: BeCl 2 GeometryHybrid Orbitals Bonding Geometric Orientation (VSEPR)sp2 (V.B. Theory) Linear sp Trigonal-planar sp3 Atomic Orbitaltrahedral sp d Trigonal-bipyramidal sp hybridization sp d HybridizatiOctahedral Example: BeCl 2 Geometry Bonding (VSEPR) (V.B. Theory) Geometry (VSEPR) Lewis structure Example #1: sp hybridization 2eCl .. .. 1. Draw Lewis Dot Diagram 80 .. Be C.. Geometry (VSEPR) Lewis structure 2. Fill in s and p orbitalsr molecule Cl 3s 3p .. .. .. 80 C.. Be C.. C.. Be ..l Be sp Cl 3s 3p 3. Promote electron into the p orbital 2 Linear molecule Cl Hybridization predicts two 3s 3p Cl Be identical bonds, as expected! Be sp 2p Cl sp (2) 3s 3p 11. 3 – Hybridization Energy Results in a two sp with p overlaps Be Be 2s 2p 2s 2p Energy Hybridization Be C 3 hybrid orbitalC s sp 2p s p s p (2) + p (2) sp2 sp2 sp2 (3) Example #2: BF (Tr3gonal planar molecule) F F 1 s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p Success! Success! B B sp2 p sp2 p + 2 m ore… .. o Hybridization predicts two 3 equiv bondformeat 120 identical bonds, as 4 equivalentbonds expected! H C s p Results in three hybrid H C H 2 spsp F F sp atomic orbital pF p F Bsp H BB120 F p F 2 hybrid sp orbitals 3 eq uivabonds form ed a t 120 s p 9 + One pure s orbital Three pure p orbitals Example #3: CH (Tet4ahedral) sp sp En+rgy (2) C
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