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12.2 and 12.3 Properties of Liquids and Solids.docx

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CHEM 110
Ariel Fenster

12.2 Some Properties of Liquids and Solids Surface Tension: the energy, or work, required to increase the surface area of a liquid  As the temperature and the intensity of molecular motion increase, intermolecular forces become less effective  less work is required to extend the surface of a liquid, meaning that surface tension decrease with increase temperate  Increase temperature results in a decrease of surface tension A drop of water: the forces holding the drop together are cohesive forces while the forces between the liquid molecules and the surface are adhesive forces. Adding detergent to water: 1. Dissolves grease to expose clean surface 2. Detergent lowers the surface tension of water  lowers the energy required to spread drops into a film 3. Known as a wetting agent Viscosity: liquids resistance to flow  Stronger the intermolecular forces of attraction, the greater the viscosity  Viscous  much more sluggishly flowing  For liquids, viscosity decreases with increasing temperature, but for gases, the viscosity increase with increasing temperature Vaporization: occurs from an increase in temperature, increase in surface area and decrease in the strength of intermolecular forces  Molecules lost through vaporization are much more energetic, therefore the average kinetic energy of the remaining molecules decreases  Endothermic (always positive)  Enthalpy of vaporization: quantity of heat that must be absorbed if a certain quantity of liquid is vaporized at
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