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CHEM 110 (151)
Lecture

Chapter 10 - Chemical Bonding

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 110
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Semester
Fall

Description
BF 3 BF 3 .. 0 ... ... .. .. 0 F B .F B F . October 10 , 20F1 B F . CHAPTER 10 – Chemical .on.ing .. . . .. .. . . .. ....0 .F.. ... Practice Examples: 10.1 – 10.9 6 e- 6 e- 6 e-xercises: 1-84 (until you understand) Exceptions to the Octet Rule 1. Incomplete Octet a. Incorrect formal charge 2- BF 3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule SO 4 BF 3 BF 3 BF 3 1. Incomplete Octet ... 0 ... 0... B ...0 2. Expandded Octet .. ... 0 .. . . .. 0 .. B .. 0 0 .. B ...0 . . . . F BETTER! F .. 0 +1 6 e- - 8 e 6 e 2. Expanded Octet (extra electrons go to the d orbitals) SO 2- SO 2- 2 SO 42- 4 4 SO 2- 4 3. Paramagnetic Species (odd number of electrons) Nitric Oxide lowers blood pressure. SO 42- SO 42- SO 42- Where do the extra electrons go? th October 10 , 2011 CHAPTER 10 – Chemical Bonding The Shape of Molecules : V.S.E.P.R – Valence Shell Electron PairRepulsion Theory  Molecules adopt the geometry which maximizes the distance between electron pairs around a central atom, and thus minimizes electrostatic repulsions Bond length: the distance between atoms A  distance  B Bond angles: the angles between the bonds joining different atoms Molecular shape depends on:  Number of electron pairs  Type of electron pairs Molecules containing only bonding pairs around the central atom  the shape depends only on the number of electron pairs. - 2 e pairs Linear 2 e pairs Linear October 10 , 2011 CHAPTER 10 – Chemical Bonding Formula: AB 2 Bond Angle: 180° APPPPLLIICAATTIION NSS ExampFormula: AB 2 2 Bond Angle: 180° APPPPLLIICAATTIION NSS Name Number of electron Formula Bond Angle Example: BeI 2 - 180 pa3 e pairs Linear Two electron pairs AB 2 180° Trigonal 180 4 e pairs Formula: AB 3 Tetrahedral Bond Angle: 120° TrigonalExample: BF 3 Three electron pairs AB 3 120° Formula: AB 3 e pairs Bond Angle: 109.5° Trigonal 1200 Example: CH 3 e pairs 4 e pairs Formula: AB 3 Trigonal TetrahTetrahedral Four electron pairs AB 4 109.5° Bond Angle: 120° 4 e pairs ExamFormula: AB 3 3 Tetrahedral Bond Angle: 120° Formula: AB 4
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