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CHEM NOV 19.docx

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CHEM 110

CHEM NOV 19 11/19/2012 7:39:00 AM Calcination and roasting- learn about this you missed the intro lolz During calcination  Volatile impurities are removed  The mass becomes porous  Difference between roasting and calcination: o With air/ absence of air (O2) o In calcination you break it down to the oxide?  Metal is in a “workable form” – converted to oxide Smelting  Removing charge and converting it to neutral metal atom  Reduction  Reduction method where the metal oxide is converted to metal  Ore is melted with a reducing agent and process involves calcination, roasting and reduction (smelting)  OR we can take the metal oxide and smelt it at a smelting point with the reduction  Blast furnance, high temperatures  Depends on the method of reduction used which determines the personality of the metal Purification of metals  Electrolytic regining o Very high purity attained o Very convenient o Electrolysis- anode, cathode and electrode o Blocks of impure metal (anode), pure metal (cathode) and solution (electrolyte)  On passing an electriccurrent through the solution, the ion go to the cathode and form pure cathode o The insoluble impurities either dissolve in the electrolyte or fall at the bottom and collect as anode mud o Copper is refined to 99.98% pure copper by electrolytic refining o Smelting is less pure  100 purity= thermal method o impure metal is heated with CO o form a compound with the pure substance and CO o the rest of the stuff will stay behind o after decomposition, there will be pure metal as a product Manufacture of Steel from pig Iron  Raw iron is very brittle, rusts easily  Steel is “high utility iron” o Alloy of iron and carbon  Involved in the infrastructure of many things today  We need to increase its tensile strength  I wasn’t listening for like a couple minutes  In ancient times when no one gave a fuck, cold air (oxygen) when blown through molten pig iron removes impurities and made it usable (not steel, but better than pig) o Process took a long ass time  Bessemerisation o Classification of steel (depending on the carbon content)  Mild carbon steel (0.15-0.3%)  Medium carbon steel (0.3-0.8%)  High carbon steel (strongest) (0.8-1.50%)  Principal of bessermisation is using oxygen in air to remove impurities from molten pig iron  Pear shaped converter (furnance)  heat at high temps  can line the inside  oxidizes the impurities…. o control of iron/ carbon 23.5 (you missed 23.2 and half of 23.3) IRON TRIAD CHEM 110- Nov 19- end of ch 24 11/19/2012 7:39:00 AM IRON TRIAD  3 transition elements which sit next to eachother  iron cobalt and nickel  have similar properties in terms of usefulness  share some of these properties and that’s what were looking at -iron is the fourth most abundant element in the earths crust -cobalt and nickel don’t exsist as much, but there is a lot still -all three iron triad elements form 2+ ions (Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+) -physically all three show m
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