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Chapter 13 Chem 120 Lecture Notes

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CHEM 120
Ian Butler

Wednesday February 13, 2013 Raoult’s Law  The partial pressure of a vapor above a solution depends on the mole fraction of a liquid o Pa = (chi)a * P’a  Pa is partial pressure of vapor a  (chi)a is mole fraction of liquid a  P’a is the vapor pressure of pure a  For ideal solutions (has ΔH around 0)  A pure solution is at equilibrium when the partial pressure of its vapor is Pvap  If then liquid is diluted at 50% (chi)a=0.5, only 50% of the vapor phase molecules are required to maintain equilibrium  When both components of a mixture are volatile: o Pa = (chi)a * P’a and Pb = (chi)b * P’b o Ptot = (chi)a * P’a + (chi)b * P’b o Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures  When you have a 50% mixture of A and B, with the mole fraction (chi) = 0.5 for both, o The fraction of vapor molecuels are benzene: n a/n tot = P a/P tot  The vapor above a mixture is enriched in the more volatile component  A pure liquid boils when P vap = P atm o Volatile liquid:  Evaporates easily, high vapor pressure, low boili
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