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CHEM 181 (350)
Lecture

Vitamins

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 181
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Semester
Winter

Description
Food crisis: Tunisia: Jan 2010 = price of food increases  riots 1. Hunger: Eastern sub-sahara most prevalent a. ~1 billion people affected b. Environmental: drought c. Safety: war, control by military states  don’t allow help to area under control d. Children affected first e. Solution:: Increase local food production i. Tools uavailable – Fertilizer Africa 3-5kg/ha, US 50x more – Water Ethiopia 130L/person/day, 4000L Canada irrigation needed, only 5% of crops ii. Produce crops more suited to local climate = biotechnology? Drought resistant crops 1. But these are unavailable to small scale farmers as it is not fiscally beneficial to big corporatiosn iii. Eliminate export subsidies paid by the rich countries, 20% less for corn exprted, 40% less for wheat 2. Price of food: food is available, but increased demand drives prices up a. Ex. 2008: food was used for biofuel upping prices i. In the middle of the year food price index at max, but in 2010 max surpassed  sugarcane/corn diverted to other things like ethanol, dairy/cereals cost about the same b. N-A ~10% of revenue is spent on food  with less income are most affected 3. Increases in oil prices/biofuel demand/wealth of emerging countries cause food prices to go up a. BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China): countries oil consumption is going up b. PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Germany, Spain) c. Biofuels: solution to CO2 production from human activity = global warming i. Materials derived from recently living organism/their by products ii. Ethanol: sugar cane/corn 1. Cane: sugar extraction  ferment  ethanol a. Brazil lead producer ~ 42% ethanol production b. Advantage: cleaner, energy savings, lower CO2 emissions c. 0.5x less green house gas emmision d. Disadvantage: less mileage 2. Corn: Sugar extraction  Malting  ferment ethanol a. Disadvantage: lower mileage, CO2 emission, more energy, less ouput, more CO2 produced than saves = inefficient b. Riots in Mexico due to corn shortage iii. Bio diesel: veggie oil, animal fat d. China: 70% middle class in 2010  ~10kg grain for 1kg of meat, need lots of water too ~16000L, only 900kg water for 1kg of corn Alternatives: - Cellulose ethanole from eg switch grass - Biodiesel: soya or canola, algae? ~50 000L/ha, CO2 = 0.32 - Brazil: 5o% soya – GMOs monoculture – more prone to pests Biofuel incentives: lessen dependency on foreign sources of food Gas consumption: US 16000L/capita/year, Europe 275L/capita/year Vitamins: nutrients needed in small amounts to prevent deficiency diseases, a blanced diet includes all vitamins at the correct proportions Fat soluble: A, D, E, K Water soluble: B1-12, C Supplement market: 30billion$ Vitamins: 10billion$ Price fixing scheme = lawsuit of 1.5billion$ Jeffery brooks: breatharian society thought that you don’t need food, only air = Bullshit Vitamin C = ascorbic acid th - Discovery voyages: 15-17 century = Scurvy -  Bleeding gums, collagen production goes down - Jacques Cartier discovers that pine needles relief symptoms - James Lind = citrus juice for prevention o Lime juice preserved with oil or rum (brit navy 1 ounce lime/day = limey) Vitamin B1: Thiamine - Beri-Beri = neurological disorder - Christian Eijkman 1880s  white rice w/o husk (contains Vit B1) replaces
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