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CHEM 181 (323)


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McGill University
CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

Minerals found; In the ocean: 3.5% salts in atlantic, 3.8% off Galapagos, 32% in dead sea 2+ 2+ + 3- - 2- Ca , Mg , Na , HCO , Cl , SO4 CaSO4 – Gypsum MgSO4 – epson salt Ca(HCO3)2 – calcium bicarbonate  CaCO3 +CO2+H2O = limestone Mineral supplements may have impurities which could be toxic 730mg per serving of Sodium in Campbell’s tomato soup Salt flats in Bolivia/Chile are mineral deposits Relative amounts: 40% of salt is sodium, 3g of salt is recommended daily intake too much salt = hypertension 120/80 is average, 150/100 is high Used K+ instead of Na+ as an attempt to get salt that doesn’t raise bld pressure  Bananas/potatoes have lots of K+ Marco-micronutrients V, Mo, Sn Molybdenum Mo ~2mg/d ~ 2000µd/g  associated with proteins, enzyme xanthine (removes uric acide) Fe2+ 2-4 grams in the body, 10-20mg/day  deficiency = anemia: in medieval times put an iron in wine (acid would dissolve the Fe) Hemochromatosis (genetic) body absorbs abnormal amounts of iron: stored in heart, liver, pancreas and joints = hear/liver disease, diabetes and arthritis Iron best absorbed when taken with vitamind C Geritol: 3.3/ml, 50mg/tbsp = 264% daily recommended amount Slow-Fe Proferia: hemoglobin  too much porphyrn produced – affects the nervous system, reddens the skin and makes you more hairy Zn: 1869 A.N. Spores causes respiratory problems, needs zinc to thrive 0.003% of body weight, need less zinc than molybdenum Necessary for healing and smell, taste (anosmia), circulation – preteong(20% of people don’t have enough zinc) Scjozphriemoa prostate ~500 mg a day needed Fibre sequesters zinc  zinc in veg diet should have more =zinc Enzyme connecion: alcohol dehydragenase RNA porymerae t-RNA, sRNA synthesis Iodine: Halogen Ionic deficiency: causes goitrer  needed by the thyroid glad for fat metabolism Theodore Kocher – 1841-1917 Nobel prize for his thyroid work in 1909 Iodine in seaweed Most salts are supplements with KI to avoid thyroid problems (less than 0.01%) Sodium silico amluminate 150µg per day Kazakhstan: very little iodine in their salt, KI is added to the mined salt to relieve goiter Up to 2% of the world is at risk for iodine deficiency, 5¢/per person/year can prevent this Selenium: 2- + Selenite: SeO3 with Na counter ion Functions as an anioxidant that works with Vitamin E. Also, it is part of glutathione peroxidase that protects cells Source: garlic/onion, seaweed, brazil nuts, tuna 50+µg/day “Caused flatulence, a feeling of warmth on the chest and a heavy sensation in the head.” Hippocrates on garlic China produes 75% of all garlic ~12 million metric tons (most tomatoes) Brazil produces most oranges Calcium: 99% bones and teeth ~1kg 1% nerve funtions (impulse transmitions)  dr Sidney Ringer 1883 Recommended intake: 1200mg/day btw ages 10-20, 800mg for rest of life Much is lost in excretion, though doubling intake doesn’t necessarily double the absorption Low levels are linked to mid-life hypertension and heart disease and case postmenopausal osteoporosis in women 50-75 years old, senile osteoporosis in men and women 75+ Osteoporosis: 10% population, 350000 hip fractures/year Risk factors: short stature, underweight, early menopause, physical inactivity, alcoholism, smoking, too much caffeine/protein/fiber = dowager’s hump/scoliosis Resorption for 40-50 year old women is 1.5% per year, in males 10-20years lates At 5% loss per year, half the bone mass is gone in 14 years Bone becomes even more porous/fragmented and less massive when osteoporosis sets in 10% hip
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