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Diet and Heart Disease

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McGill University
CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

Diet to Heart disease Small potions + mostly fruits and veggies + exercise Coronary heart disease leading cause of death in North America Risk factor: - Low birth weight - Male - High blood pressure - Obesity - Smoking (more than for lung cancer) - Diabetes - Stress - Microbes (ex cytomegalovirus  flossing can reduce heart disease, chramydia) - Homocysteine: made from methioning o Metabolized (need B vitamins) o Increased homocysteine = increased heart disease o Men 6-10µmol/L, women 6-10µmol/L  risk starts @ 11µmol/L o Reduce: eat fruits/veggies (contain B vitamins) o HOPE shows w/ lowering homocysteine by vitamins may not lower risk of heart disease High triglycerides: increase = increase in heart disease Cholesterol: steroid only in animal products Used in synthesis of membranes, hormones Synthesized by liver Epidemiological study: Framingham  increase cholesterol = increase risk of heart disease, so did 7 country study of familial hypercholesterolemia (too much cholesterol produced by liver), ½ people w/ heart attacks have normal cholesterol Heart attack: blockage in coronary artery  cuts off O2 delivery to heart muscle = arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries - deposits build up in the endothelium = ballooning  busts when cholesterol oxidizes – seen as foreign substance by immue system = inflammation = bursts Prevented by antioxidants? Nope. Inflammation: body’s response to irritation = pain, swelling, redness, heat High sensitivity C-reaction protein increase > 2mg/L means there is a good chance of plaque build up/burst forming  burst = blood clot – blocks flow in heart Statin drug reduces heat disease as it is an anti-inflammatory - “Crestor” = Jupiter trial = 100% reduction in cardiovascular events, though turns out that to treate 120 eople to prevent 1 event ~290 000$ per like saved Study funded by drug manufacturers Joseph Goldstein/Michael Brown: study lipoproteins soluble, but cholesterol is not LDL: low density lipoprotein – bad cholesterol Too much? Gets dumped – builds up (gets cholesterol from liver) HDL: high density lipoprotein – good cholesterol Picks up cholesterol and returns it to the liver LDLs unload cholesterol into cells by LDL healthy album receptors with the help of the apoprotein NHLBI study: 3800 men w/ high cholesterol ½ good diet, ½ good diet + drug latter showed a 9% drop in cholesterol and heart attacks decreases 19%, cardiac deaths decreased by 24% Cholesterol measuring: mmol/L = mg/dL x 0.026 Triglycerides mmol/L = 0.0113 x mg/dL Total cholesterol: <200 (5.2) = desierable 200-239 (5.2-6.2) = borderlin >240 (6.2) = high LDL: <130 (3.4) = desirable 130-159 (3.4-4.1) = borderline >160 (4.1) = high HDL: <40 (1.0) = undesirable >60 (1.56) = desirable Triglyceride: <200 = desirable 200-400 = borderline >400 = high Low risk: LDL/HDL <3 Total cholesterol/HDL <4 HDL offers more protection than LDL provides risk LDL = total cholesterol - HDL – triglycerides / 5 Apolipoprotein: wraps up cholesterol Limone sul Garda, Italy = increase heart disease risk due to lower HDL levels, but lower heart attack rate found A-1 Milano type apolipoprotein  injected – cleans the system Has the ability to neutralize free radicals Used to treat patients at risk of heart disease, regression of coronary atherosclerosis Blood cholesterol from cholesterol in food (saturated or trans fats as the block LDL receptors which causes the LDL to dump contents overboard) or synthesized by the liver Cholesterol found in food products like eggs don’t contriute to blood cholesterol  liver produces ~800mg cholesterol/day, if more cholesterol is ingested the liver will produce less Omega-3 in eggs and flax w/ alpha-linolenic acid 
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