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CHEM 181 (350)
Lecture

Food Additives

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 181
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Semester
Winter

Description
Food Additives Toxic wax on fruits and vegetables? Added to preserve moisture - Beeswax - Carnauba wax: from tropical plant, used in shoe polish o Emulsified with morpholine  reacts with ammines in body  minute amounts of nitrosomorpholine (cancer causing in animals), naturally synthesized from nitrates in vegetables - Candelilla wax - Shellac Good old days? Smog from coal in London 1952 for a week  8000 died Cuyahoga River 1970 caught fire due to so much oil in the water No sewage control until 1984, everything went into St Lawrence before that Antibiotics came in the 1950s No food inspection In roman times added lead acetate to sweeten wine Copper salts were used to make veggies greener Plaster of Paris (CaSO4) was added to flour to extend the shelf life, sometimes arsenic was used instead Cyanide: Naturally present in Almonds, fruit seed, lima beans, cassava roots (every so often there is poisoning in Africa) Safrole (sassafras leaves): used to be flavouring in root beer, carcinogenic in animal  precursor to ecstasy Wileswood popcorn: Ingredients Genuine popcorn, pure vegetable oil, natural salt, real artificial color (?) Salt: NaCl #1 food additive in Canada, ca 10lbs/person/year (10x more than we need) #2 in US, as in Canada sugar is not considered to be a food additive  electrolyte, conducts electricity important for biological processes (neurological transmission), gives taste to food, preserves food Salary: Romans paid in “salarium” = blocks of salt Associated with high bld pressure Though not all hypertensives are sodium sensitive Any sodium is important (eg sodium bicarbonate) Though for peeps who are sodium sensitive, NaCl is the worst KCl sometimes used as substitute Ornithyltaurine: amino acid derivative as substitute Reduce size of NaCl crystals magnifies taste “Chemical” additives: 1lb/person/year ~2000 different chemicals Monosodium Glutamate (MSG): present in seaweed - Umami is the fifth taste developed by Kikunae Ikeda o Translates as flavourful - Increases salivation  extracts taste chemical - Increased sensitivity of tastebuds - In some adverse reaction: CRS = Chinese restaurant syndrome – burning sensation in chest and along arms (like heart attack) = Kwok’s Disease - Glutamic acid salt: in tomatoes, eggs, cheese, bread - Molasses w/ GMO bascteria glatmic acid w/ NaOH msg - MSG adversity is mostly placebo, though in real sensitivity can trigger asthma attacks Allergies: Peanut butter: allergy can cause anaphylactic shock, ca 200 deaths per year - drop in bld pressure - using epinephrine (adrenaline) from EpiPen will bring bld pressure back up Latex: needs very little to trigger if a cook uses latex gloves to cook can cause a reaction STP: Sodiumtrypolyphosphate is a moisture retainer so that there is more moisture post cooking, present in KD and cleaning agents as a chelating agent to soften water In trisodium phosphate (similar to sodiumtrypolyphosphate): also used in incendiary bombs and tracer bullets? Nope, that’s just phosphorus Salt as a preservative: Used to hang food over side of boat: the salty sea spray would preserve the food Louis Pasteur: Showed bacteria caused spoilage: Spontaneous Generation theory debunked: peeps believed life could be created from nothing L’experience du col de cygne: if a broth that normally sustained bacteria, if the bacteria was prevented from getting in, it wouldn’t grow in the broth  pasteurizaition Keep bacteria in check: sterilizaing by heating, or keep at low temps to prevent bacteria from developing Osmosis: if bacteria is put in a salt solution, the water from inside the bacteria to the solution as they are hypotonic to the solution, bacteria crenate Ex PICKLES Can apply to any compound in solution (eg. sugar) Is it worth spending money on “pure” food? When comparing health food store ketchup to Heinz, we can see that the ingredients are virtually identical. Smoke is a good preservative: dehydrates so bacteria cannot develop Smoke is toxic killing bacteria Smoked herring turns red Food poisoning is an issue in north America Canada 2 million cases a year – 30 deaths US 20-80 million cases – 10000 deaths? Salmonella: 50% of chickens have salmonella Listeria: in cheese causes listeriosis, also in Maple Leaf meats E coli O157:H7 strain, in Health food too!  in spanich and peanut butter Why is it so prevalent still: Better reporting Increased meat consumption Increased lifespan = longer life, decreased immune system (also during pregnancy due to depressed immune system so as not to reject the fetus) Increased traveling Industrial farming Use of antibiotics in animal feed  food produced on a large scale and ~50- 70% of antibiotics are given to animals – it is economical as they grow faster on less food – bacteria on the animal become immune to antibiotics and then when the bacteria is infect by people, antibiotics won’t work Polysorbate 60 and glycerides are emulsifiers for oils “Artificial flavour”: now you can say “imitation flavour”, roughly 2000 chemical additives are allowed in Canada and 1800 are flavour additives, used to have to be listed separately, now can be umbrella labeled In apples: acetone, ethanol, formaldehyde, sugar, water (85%, 120mL) Radishes have 98% water Artificial flavour vs real flavour: Artificial is nature identical, contains only an avtice ingredient; real stuff contains other chemical sthat add to the flavour making it more subtle Vanillin is the number one artificial flavouring Artificial smoke: burn, smoke goes through water  picks up the flavouring, safer than smoking on the bbq as the carcinogenic compounds are volatile and thus don’t stay in the flavoured water Food colours: 10 synthetic colours (8 can be used throughout a food + 2 are
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