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CHEM 181 (350)
Lecture

Weight Control

7 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 181
Professor
Ariel Fenster

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Description
Weight control: In NA: Elevated rates of obesity especially in children has caused an elevated rate of Type 2 diabetes Most heavy person on earth: Mexican Manuel Uribe = 550kg Now has gotten down to 500lbs Average weight: Men Women 1960: 166 140 2002: 191 154 1/20 people once obese manage to keep the weight off The cure rate is lower than cancer Hippocrates looked into obesity: Losing weight tips: Exercise before eating, then eat while still panting with fatigue Eat once a day Don’t bathe Sleep on a hard bed Walk naked Cellulite: excess fat in unwanted places Gimmicks for weight loss: Acustop, electronics, fat melting, patches, fad diets (eg. no fat, cabbage soup, mustard, high/low carbs) Imagination diet? Think about eating food and you’ll be satiated by that alone. Obesity predisposes: - Heart disease - Stroke - Hypertension - Cancer - Diabetes - Low life expectancy Why? Diet sucks (high sugar, fat, salt, calories)  bigger desserts, Huge soft drinks Sucrose = glucose + fructose  weight gain HFC: more fructose = sweeter Dr Lustig: Leptin that curbs appetite not produced with consumption of fructose, so fructose does not blunt appetite like glucose Obesigen: phthalate found in plastics = insulin resisten, increases obesity Girth fat: releases triglycerides more into the blood stream, increases risk of hear disease (ie. men with bear bellies) BMI: wt/ht^2 Underweight ≤ 21-24 ≤ overweight Waist/hip ratio to BMI is a good judge of health Calorie: Energy measurement unit Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1˚C 1 food calorie = 1kCal = 1000 small calories  raises temp of 1kg of H2O by 1˚C Weight = cals in-cals out Calorimeter measures ∆T when combusting reactants First used by Wilbur Olin Atwater Burned a lot of food to determine energy, normalized measurements by burning excretory salts so that only calories absorbed by the body would be taken into account Metabolizable enery: amount of energy made available by the food Doesn’t take into account of energy need for digestion (eg. protein and soluble fiber) Net Metabolizable energy: total energy gained including digestion Cooked food has higher net metabolizable energy as same components have already been broken down during cooking Things are metabolized slowly so that not all the energy is released at once Some places in the US are required to announce calories content Metabolism: the energy consumption by autonomic biological processes Basal metabolic rate (BMR): amount of energy needed to fuel you for no activity whatsoever A lot of work is needed to expend calories cals/min Walking 2.8 Biking 3.2 Dancing 5.0 Running (11MPH) 21.7 Swimming 26.4 BMR: 1400-1700 cal/day  anything more will be stored  anything less will cause weight loss With sedentary lifestyle: walking a little, fucking around Cals per day expended: Men: 2000 Women: 1500 But everyone’s biochemically different NA agriculture produces ~3900cal/person/day Genetics? Overweight parents = overweight kids Nature/Nurture? Pema Indians in Arizona: most people are obese  with the same diet as average north American, put on more weight In Mexico: Pemas are working more, eat less = less obese than in US Low basal metabolic trate when young can predict obesity  don’t need as much food to sustain you BMR in obese = BMR in normal people Wt increases, so does BMR until you get to normal BRM, then you stop gaining Set point: BMR that body wants to have Put on wt until BMR = petpoint Body resists change from setpoint Cals cut back = increase in weight loss initially, until BMR = cal intake again Exercise needed to increase BMR, so more food needs to be eaten to basically satisfy Bob Edelman a NY photog, documented his weight loss process: Reducing cals with excerisive, he lost weight but in a few years it came back on Diets: All cut down on caloric intake, but have weird gimmicks to keep them from being sustainable. NA spends over 50 billion $/year on diets Low carbs (ketogenic): eg Last Chance diet: 400 cals protein, liquid, not enough nutrient = DEATH Atkins: high protein and fat, low carbs  was castigated, but now evidence suggests that it’s not too bad Theory: carbs = glucose = insulin  glucose in muscle cells for energy, too much insulin = resistance, glucose = fat, w/o glucose = fat used for energy But not enough fruit, stress on kidneys National weight loss registry = 6000 people lost 30lbs kept it off for a year Avg. 70lbs dropped for 6 years  combo diet + exercise - only 10% were diet only - mostly fat + carbs - eat breakfast - weigh frequency - not much TV In registry <8% have used Atkins Duke university: i) 60 peeps on atkins ii) 60 peeps on the heart association recommended diet For 60 months - Raised HDL, lowered triglycerides, dropped 31 pounds - Dropped 20 pounds, lowered HDL As long as calories are lowered, it doesn’t matter if fat is raised Eg. Agatston – south beach diet Reduce “bad carbs” ex baked potatoes/bananas Follow reduce on glycemic index = less insulin resistance The zone: carbs 40% Protein 30% of calories Montignac: popular in france w/ small serving size Susanne Somers: same idea, lowering serving size Lipo remobes fat, laser therapy releases fat into bld stream High carb diets: Eg. Dean ornish: cardiologist, high fiber <10% fat, lots of fruits/veggues, more sustainable  targets cardiac patients Fit for life: only certain combos of food Fat blocker: chitosan – blocks fat uptake = slippery poop! Calium key: studies in 80s peeps w/ increase of calcium drop in bld pressure Increase Ca = lower body weight Mice on low calorie +Ca diet lost weight Cut calories = Lose weight: Hobb nutrition professor @ Kansas state: twinkie diet  27lbs lost, BMI dropped lowe
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