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CHEM 181 (350)
Lecture

Diet and Cancer

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 181
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Semester
Winter

Description
Adverse food reactions: Salmonella, Hepatitis, E Coil 157:H7 in spinach (causes hemolytic anemia in children), Botulin Real risk vs perceived risk Robert Gibbon Johnson (1920): Lawyer who travelled in Europe Diet in NA: lots of meat, not much fruits or veggies Italy: lots of tomatoes  lycopene, reduced prostate/cervical cancer risk Tomatoes were not eaten in NA because it was assume it was as toxic as belladonna So he advertised that he’d eat a tomato in public and invited people to watch  he didn’t die = perceived risk Arthur Hasall (1850): English physician, eating mashed goose berries  copper coated his fork because copper was added to make the pie more green In early 1900 chalk was added to watered down milk to make it look like real milk Arsenic and boric acid sprinkled on meat and fish to retard the spoilage Lard added to butter to extend it = real risks Plaster of Paris was added to flour Arsenic oxide added to meat to keep it from turn black Indigo added to tea to extend it (less tea for more colour 1. Unintentional contaminants: a. Pesticides residues: amount allowed is regulated, and random sampling checks. Accidents may occur: i. Aldicarb pesticide on cucumbers: acetylcolinesterase inhibitor = no break down of acetylcoline = cholinergic stimulation = death 1. This kills insects, and at high concentrations kill people 2. Pesticides are sold highly concentrated and must be diluted 3. Dublin: 15 year old boy gets sick = cholinergic stimulation (70% higher than normal) a. Ate cucumber that had too much aldicarb, hadn’t been diluted properly 4. Company picnic: 14/20 attendee got sick  cabbage salad a. Aldicarb had been added instead of pepper b. 0.2mg/kg was ingested  0.0011 is considered poisening 5. Atrophine sulphate is the antidote b. Mercury in fish: released every time we burn coal, get put into environment i. Eventually gets concentrated in fish ii. In pregnant women this is a problem: toxic to embryo 2. Naturally occurring toxins: a. Just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not dangerous b. Hippocrates condemned to death as he was “leading his students astray” i. Had to drink hemlock plant juice: conine c. Potatoes: solanine i. Presence of green from chlorophyll under the skin means potato was trying to sprout ii. At the same time: it’s producing solanine = anti-fungal d. Amanita muscaria: i. Toxins: muscarine, hypoteic acid ii. LaRousse encyclopedia: accidentally labeled the muscaria as safe 1. Recalled the encyclopedia e. Molds: can be medicinal, but could be toxic i. If in doubt throw it out ii. Mycotoxins: occasionally found in food supply 1. Eg. Found in cereals: aflatoxins (most potent carcinogen), ochratoxin A, patulin, fusarium iii. You may not be able to see mold growing f. Aged/fermented food: eg cheese and wine i. Thyramine: metabolize by monomine oxydase 1. Vasopressor = increase blood pressure 2. If you’re on antidepressant (monomine oxydase inhibitor) you shouldn’t eat foods with thyramine g. Fish: i. Become real smelly ii. Harbor bacteria which break down fish after fish dies 1. Histidine: gets broken down to histamine = Scromboid poisoning 2. Poisoning: burning in mouth, rash, headache, hives, neasea (rarely death) 3. Treat with antihistamines like Benadryl h. Baracuda: ciguatera poisonind i. From algae that they eat ii. Similar symptoms to scromboid poison 1. But symptoms can stay with you for years i. Fugu: Pufferfish i. Tetrodotoxin: in certain parts of fish ii. Parts must be removed prior to eating 1. Even so you still get a little tetrodotoxin  tingling sensation in finger tips iii. This toxin connected with zombies? 1. Voodoo masters paralyze people with the toxin? 2. Poor people being poisoned with tetrodotoxin, buried and brought back to life into slavery a. Use atropine/scopolamine (zombie cucumber) j. Muscles: i. In Montreal: 20 people poisoned at restaurant ii. Domoic acid contamination 1. Produced by algae that’s filtered by muscles k. Cassava: tuber i. Cyanide: released if casaba is left in the sun to dry = cyanide released into the air as HCN ii. In Caribbean it’s low in CN, but in Africa it’s higher l. Licorice: i. Glycyrrhizhinic acid: causes excretion of potassium ii. Drop K levels very quickly = paralysis iii. A lot of licorice must be eaten m. Comfrey: tea meant to be good for you i. Contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids: can destroy your liver 3. Body chemistry problems: a. Diabetes: i. Diabetics have to watch their diets and stay away from sugar b. Phenylketonurea: (PKU) i. Genetic desease: 1/15000-1/20000 children ii. Inability to metabolize phenylalanine  builds up in the brain 1. Can lead to mental illness iii. Avoid aspartame: when hydrolyzed in the body: phenylalanine + aspartic acid iv. Most proteins have phenylalanine c. Lactose intolerance i. Affects 70% of the population ii. Adverse reaction to lactose sugar iii. In Asia especially iv. The only way to surely diagnose lactose intolerance is by doing a breath test 1. Fast overnight 2. Give you lactose 3. Measure how must H2 you have on your breath 4. Lactose will go through your digestive tract  bacteria digest it and produce H2 v. Lactose free milk: added lactase d. Fruit intolerance: not allergy (no antibodies) i. Fructoes malabsorption: bacteria metabolize = diarrhea/upset stomach ii. Hereditary fructose intolerance: fructose 1 phosphate aldolase definciency 1. Interferes with body’s use of glucose 2. Causes nausea, sweating, tremors, seizures (same as hypoglycemia) 3. Diagnosis: ask patience if they have an aversion to sweetness (learned subconsciously that sweet = sick) iii. Sorbitol: Sugarless gums still contain sugar-alcohols = explosive diarrhea e. Favism: adverse reaction to fava beans i. Hemolytic anemia: abnormal breakbown of RBCs ii. Genetic: deficiency of glucose-6-phsophate dehydrogenase iii. Symptoms: fatigue, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, back pain iv. Pythagorus had favism: “Stay away from beans” f. Celiac disease: gluten sensitivity i. Adverse reaction to gluten in wheat, barley, rye ii. Dr Samuel Gee (1888): noticed children with bloated stomachs, diarreh and growth problems iii. Dr Willem Dicke in WWII noticed when people were cut off from wheat/bread supplies their previously described symptoms went away iv. Disturbance of villi in intestines v. Gliadin protein in gluten 1. Immune system mistakes this protein for a dangerous material and produces antibodies against it  cytokines damages villi = causes swelling and fusion = less absorption of nutrients vi. Symptoms: stools are light colored and bulky, smelly and sticky due to high fat content, poor absorption of iron, vitamin
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