Class Notes (839,146)
Canada (511,218)
Chemistry (1,145)
CHEM 181 (350)
Lecture

Chocolate and Cooking

5 Pages
140 Views

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 181
Professor
Ariel Fenster

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Description
Chocolate: Canadian confectionary associaion: 30% of men/38% of women prefer chocolate to sex Quebec 74% 20% Nova scotia 500 chemicals in chocolate Cocoa fat: melting point of 36˚C  good texture Theobroma cacao: The food of the gods Aztec use chocolate to sacrifice to gods Chocolate not eaten but drunk Xocoatl = bitter in Aztec Cacao used as currency Spanish though it was an aphrodisiac Sugar, vanilla, cinnamon added to counteract bitterness Flower on the trunk  pods develop year round Big types of cacao Forastero Criollo Trinitero Fermentation of cacao beans: Sugar  alcohol  acetic acid  esters Top cocoa producers: Ivory coast: 1.33 milion metric tons/year Much is produced through child labour  buy fair trade Ghana Indonesia Nigeria Brazil Drying  roasting = Maillard reaction – Sugar + protein Fake tanning: uses maillard reaction using DHA + skin proteins Beans crushed = nibs  chocolate liquor  cooking unsweetened chocolate Europeans figured: Very bitter, high fat content – hard to emulsify Conrad van Houten (1828): figured how to make it soluble Compresses the chocolate liqueur to get cocoa cake + cocoa butter Cocoa butter important in cosmetics and suppositories Dutch process: mix cocoa with alkali  more soluble and less bitter JS Fry (1847) Englishman: put butter and cake back together in a controlled manner  first edible chocolate (Cadbury about the same time) Switzerland: Daniel Peter (1876): first to add milk (Nestle’s condensed milk) = milk chocolate White chocolate: made essentially from cocoa butter Rudolph Lindt: Conching – mixing chocolate for days = smooth Theodore Tobler 1909: Nugat + chocolate = toblerone, cool shape based on the Mattherhorm Swiss and Belgians consume 22lbs per person per year US Milton Hershey (1903): mission to bring chocolate to the masses Sell in small pieces to make it affordable Founded the town Hershey – chocolate capital of NA 35 million kisses produced per day in Pennsylvania WWII: Given to soldiers as it’s energy rich Hershey’s tropical chocolate doesn’t melt as easily Tastes little better than a boiled potato Put in a sugar coating so it wouldn’t matter if the chocolate would melt, but the candy would break as chocolate expanded in melting Dr Alfred Stern (1942): M&M – in Montreal chocolate with air pockets to allow for chocolate expansion 1976: red disappeared and didn’t reappear for 11 years Red#2 scare around then, even though M&Ms were coloured with Red#40 Complaints because the kids no longer knew how to cross the road…. Rollingstones: only like brown MM Areosmith: only like green (Aphrodesiac?) Cherry blossom candy: Sugar, no cocoa butter, just vegetable oil, invertase Cherry is put in the chocolate with sugar w/ invertase As candy ages, the glucose and sugar produced creates syrup Ocumare venezulan chocolate Health: Substitute to alcohol Does not make acne But may cause heartburn: Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder (GERD), chocolate weakens cardiac sphincter = GERD Sugar  Lactic acid by S mutans in mouth Chocolate has antibacterial agents Migraines? Not really common Cough suppressant due to theobromine Small animals cannot metabolize theobromine quickly enough = dog death Heart disease: A lot of fat in chocolate (stearic acid which isn’t so bad) Has lots of antioxidants Oxidized LDL is badddddd Cocoa powder is richer in antioxidants than green tea Kuna Indians (San Blas islands): drink lots of chocolate = not much heart disease Chocolate releases Nitric oxide in brain – lowers blood pressure Mars: health chocolate? 100mg flavanols You can buy fortified chocolate Chocolate and beauty: Hershey spa Chocolate fashion show around the world Cravings: chocoholics Sugar coated babies?? 40% women 15% men are “addicted” to chocolate Not enough caffeine/theobromine Not sugar (everywhere) Though increases serotonin Contains Anandamine: means bli
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