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CHEM 181 (326)

Wine and Cheese

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McGill University
CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

10/4/12 Cheese: Cheese lover = Turophile (from Greek) th Thomas Muffet: 16 century – liked spiders, but his daughter Patience didn’t like them = Miss muffet Curds and whey 9000BC – Pot Cheese: material at the bottom of a pot from carrying milk (associated with acidity of pots) 2300BC: First making of cheese – goat farmer noticed that when milk kept in stomach sacks  solid = cheese Romans made cheese from extracts of stomachs of calves 87% Water 5% lactose 3.5% fat 3.5% protein 1% minerals Casein micelles (protein) in suspension (alpha, beta, kappa) all balled up: when enzyme added, kappa casein stretches out and the beta and alpha are liberated In milk: Starter culture – breaks up the kappa casein (eg. Acid) Coagulated curds are strained – separated are the curds and the whey = Curds are cottage cheese Less fat in cream cottage cheese than in regular cottage cheese Chymosin is used today instead of starter culture: breaks the kappa casein (found in rennet from young animal stomachs to help them digest the milk) Microbial cultures can be used as a substitute for starter cultures When cheese is made, polymer compounds are converted into monomers (eg. Fats  fatty acids) Shortage of rennet? Use old cows though there’s a shortage of rennet, instead pepsin is acidic which works as a starter culture Fungi also can do this 1990 – chymosin produced by recombinant DNA (first GMO food on market, insulin was first medical use of GMO) France has 365 different types of cheese 10/4/12 Cottage cheese: fresh cheese  can make Mozzerlla from this: made by stretching and no aging, best made from black bufflalo milk Soft-ripened cheese: inoculated with bacteria or fungi Eg. Camembert: mold only added to surface – surface ripened Eg. Brie, eat is au coulant – runny, don’t put in the fridge Salvador Dali: clocks run like brie Blue cheese: Innoculated with mold within Eg. Roquefort: smelly, contains 2-heptanone: bee pheromone Semi-soft cheese: remove more water than a simple soft cheese Oka Hard cheese: evn more water removed Eg. Swiss, made by swiss cows Holes from stirring while setting with “harp”, use cheese cloth to strain and press to remove water  waxy material where gases cannot escape. Bacteria converts lactic acid  propionic acid + CO2. Propionic acid (preservative) Cheddar: Yellow colouring added to differentiate Canadian/uk cheddar Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Don’t eat cheese if taking this as Cheese contains Tyramine – don’ eat too much cheese = hypertension Processed cheese: made first by Kraft: blend of cheese All imitation cheese all have around same amount of fat Cow is laughing because it has conjugated linoleic acid Wine: in moderation is good for the health Win lover: oenophile (from Greek as well) #2 alcoholic beverage in the world, and is going up everywhere but france Highest consumption of wine per capita/year Vatican: 70L Canada: 10L France: 45L Italy: 42L QC 19L, BC 16L, Yukon 20L Canary islands: when a child comes of age they bath in wine 100 cals in a glass of wine, niacin (insignificant), panthothenic acid, pyrsomething French paradox: French don’t eat well in terms of heart disease risk, but are 2nd lowest heart disease rate Alcohol: increases HDL Danish study says that wine is the best to reduce the incidence of heart disease 10/4/12 Resveratrol: antioxidant Very stable structure due the conjugated double bonds in phenyls Free radical trap – stabilize free radicals Boston company tried to promote resveratrol pills: from study that took obese rats – if they were on a high calorie diet they lived longer if on resveratrol, though it was the human equivalent of 1500 bottles of wine per day Red wine: most rich in resveratrol The French, apart from drinking a lot of wine: don’t eat dessert, eat lots of fruits and veggies, eat slowly and small portions (eating quickly promotes plaque build up in arteries) They don’t get heart disease, but they don’t live any longer Acetaldehyde build up from too much alcohol as body can’t convert to acetic acid quickly enough = hang over Congeners: the more age an alcoholic beverage = more colouring = more congeners = more hangover Women more sensitive to red wine Whiskey
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