Sugar- suposed to rot our teeth and main culprit associated with obesity
- non-nutritive sweeteners
- Country with highest use of artificial sweeteners- U.S. (durr)
- they consume roughly half of all non-nutritive sweeteners in the world
History of Artificial Sweeteners
- 1879, Prof. Ira Remsen
- synthesized new chemical
- his graduate student (Fahlberg) got some on his hand, tasted it, and noticed it was sweet
- student patented the product behind Remsen's back! (shiiiet)
- originally produced in Germany
- 1901, John Francis Queeny (U.S.)
- brought Saccharin and put on market in U.S.
- founded company, Monsanto
- started as manufacturer of Saccharin
- 500 times as sweet as sugar :O
- but has bitter aftertaste!
- other substances added to to cut down on bitter after taste, thus 300x sweeter than
Saccharin= x300 sweeter than sugar, 0 calories
- in 1900, people not as concerned about obesity, so this was mostly used for medical
but then, increases incidence of bladder cancer among male rats fed high lifetime amounts of
saccharin and whose parents had also been fed high lifetime amounts of saccharin, canadian
- Canada: Saccharin banned as food additive
- but still available as a table-top sweetener in pharmacies
- US: Allowed as a food additive
- available as a table-top sweetener
- issue in the U.S.
- any substance that has been shown to cause cancer under any circumstances cannot be
put on the market
- initially the food and drug administration banned saccharin from U.S.
- eventually a special law passed to override this clause in Saccharin's case!
- issue of animal study! comparative to humans, we'd have to drink 800 cans of saccharin to
- animals respond in different fashions, if one animals gets cancer it doesn't mean others willor that humans will
2000: Saccharin removed from list of carcinogenic substances
- studied with rats did not apply to humans!
- Saccharin causes cancer in male rats by a mechanism not found in humans!!
Hazard, Risk, Exposure
Hazard: A Lion!
Risk: Where you meet the lion, under what condition! (african savanna vs. behind bars at a
- Risk= Hazard x Exposure x susceptibility
- susceptibility: if you're a deer or antelope, that's a big risk! if you're a little mouse