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Chemistry (1,145)
CHEM 181 (350)
David Harpp (107)
Lecture

Chocolate

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 181
Professor
David Harpp
Semester
Winter

Description
World of Chem: Food April 5 – Chocolate/Cooking Chocolate  Study: In Canada, 30% of men and 38% of women prefer chocolate to sex. But in Quebec, 74% preferred chocolate to sex. Nova Scotia: 20% preferred chocolate to sex.  500 chemicals  Most people love chocolate because of its texture (oess so because of the taste). The cocoa fat has a melting point of 36 C and the body temperature is 37 C. So chocolate melts right away when it goes in the body.  Theorbroma Cacao: the tree of the cocoa. Theorbroma means “the food of the gods”  The Aztec in Mexico used chocolate as an offering to their god in gold goblets that could only be used once. At that time, chocolate was drunk instead of eaten.  The term chocolate comes from the term xocoatl which means bitter.  Used cocoa bean as currency.  Mexicans sent it to Spain as an aphrodisiac.  Sugar, vanilla or cinnamon added to it to get rid of the bitterness.  10 lbs eaten per person per year in North America.  Chocolate starts as a flower – same family as orchids – grows on trunks of trees and gets converted into fruit. It grows year round. Big names: o Forastero, Criollo, Trinitero o Cut open and beans are fermented – stays in heat in the open.  Sugar  alcohol  acetic acid  esters o Then dried and roasted. Roasting provides the flavour. Maillard reaction caused by the roasting. (DHA reacts with skin protein to give a fake tan – also a maillard reaction) o Nibs made from crushed beans. Chocolate liquor made from nibs. This is used to make unsweetened chocolate – very bitter and high fat content. Thus adding water to it was difficult, especially because they wanted to drink it.  Top cocoa producers: Ivory Coast is the number one producer, with 1.33 million metric tons. Then Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Brazil.  Unfortunately, mostly produced through child labour.  Conrad van Houten 1828 introduced a process that made the chocolate more soluble – less fat. Thus could have it as a liquid. o Introduced a device called a compressor that compressed the chocolate liquor to get cocoa cakes on one side and cocoa butter (essentially pure fat) on the other.  Cocoa butter used to make lipstick and suppositories (medicines to put in the rectum or vagina) o Also introduced the dutch process – the treatment of the cocoa cake with alkalines. Made it more soluble and less bitter.  J.S. Fry 1847 o Once chocolate was separated from the cocoa fat, he had the idea of putting them back together under controlled conditions to get the right consistency. o Added sugar to further cut down on bitterness. o First edible chocolate called Fry‟s chocolate.  Switzerland‟s speciality is milk chocolate – added milk to chocolate o Daniel Peter 1876 developed a factory and added milk to cut down on bitterness. World of Chem: Food April 5 – Chocolate/Cooking o Nestlé made condensed milk so Peter told him to mix the milk with the chocolate – thus milk chocolate.  Cocoa butter is made to use white chocolate  Rudolph Lindt (Swiss) 1890s developed “conching” – mixing the chocolate for a long time: days at a time. Made the chocolate smooth.  Theodore Tobler (Swiss) 1909: Toblerone. Made the shape after the Matterhorn mountain  The Swiss consume 22 lbs per person per year of chocolate.  Milton Hershey (American) 1903 wanted to bring chocolate to the masses because it was really expensive so not many people could buy it. Thus had the idea of making it in small pieces. o 35 million kisses made every day at Hershey, Pennsylvania  WWII: major improvements in chocolate. o Part of the ration because it had a lot of calories. But chocolate would melt so it was a problem. Thus Hershey made “tropical chocolate” – it wouldn‟t melt so easily. But didn‟t taste good because the government was scared the soldiers would eat too much. o Dr. Alfred Stern 1942 beat air into the chocolate because coated with hard sugar coating. Thus the M&Ms.  1976 red colours disappeared and reappeared only in 1987 because there was a scare associated with red dye #2. But though red M&Ms were coloured with red dye #40, Stern was scared that people wouldn‟t buy the M&Ms. Thus he took them out. But parents used M&Ms to teach their kids about road safety, so when the red ones were taken out, there were a lot of accidents. So they put red M&Ms back in 1987.  The Rolling Stones insist on brown M&Ms before a show; Aerosmith insist on green M&Ms (green ones are aphrodisiacs) to ensure people have read their contract.  20% red, 20% yellow, 10% green, 10% blue, 10% orange, 30% brown.  Cherry Blossom – no cocoa butter! Invertase is an enzyme and it is part of the ingredients. o Sugar  [invertase]  invert sugar (glucose + fructose) which are more soluble, so sugar melts.  Porcelana, Ocumare are good chocolates.  Chocolate was first introduced as a health measure: a substitute for alcohol.  Will not do anything for acne but may cause heart burn. o GERD: Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder  A substance in chocolate weakens the valve between esophagus and stomach  Tooth decay: sugar  [s. mutans]  lactic acid and plaque  Chocolate also contains some anti-bacterial agents so actually not as bad for the teeth as people think – but should still brush your teeth after eating chocolate.  Migraines – not as big of an issue as people thought.  Good cough suppressant because of the sugar and presence of theobromine: antitussive – good for dry cough. o Thus should not give to dogs because they cannot break down the theobromine  Heart disease? A lot of fat in chocolate but a lot of good fat. Chocolate is also rich in antioxidan
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