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Wine and Cheese

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McGill University
CHEM 181
David Harpp

World of Chem: Food April 11 – Wine and Cheese Cheese  A cheese lover is known as a turophile – come from Greek, meaning “cheese”  Thomas Muffet was a 16 century British physician who loved spiders and kept them to beautify rooms with their webs. His daughter Patience did not share his love.  Cheese is mostly about curds and whey.  Started in 9000 BC with “pot cheese” – milk put in pot had curds at the bottom. Possibly due to acidity of the pot  2300 BC – first indication of making of cheese. A goat farmer carried milk in pouches made from stomachs of animals. It solidified – thus making cheese. An enzyme in the stomach of small animals converted milk to cheese.  We mostly eat cheese made from cow milk. o 87% water, 5% lactose (sugar), 3.5% fat, 3.5% protein, 1% minerals (calcium)  In cheese, there is protein in suspension known as casein micelles. Different kinds of casein: alpha, beta and kappa. Alpha and beta attached by kappa – like little balls (alpha and beta) attached by an elastic band (the kappa). When you add an enzyme or an acid to milk, it untangles the kappa casein, which liberates the alpha and beta casein. They precipitate out from solution and bring protein and fat with them.  Make (cottage) cheese: o Add acidic starter culture to milk o Proteins coagulate o Collect proteins in cheesecloth o Curd in cheesecloth, whey left behind in solution (still contains some protein) o Curds have protein and fat; whey has protein.  The simplest of all cheeses to make is cottage cheese.  Less fat in creamed cottage cheese than in regular cottage cheese.  Today, cheese is made with an enzyme called chymosin, which breaks the kappa casein. Found in rennet, which is found in stomach of young animals such as calves. o Not in adult animals because for young animals, milk is more digestible when partly coagulated.  Can also use microbial cultures to improve the taste.  When you make cheese: o Fats  fatty acids o Proteins  amino acids o Lactose  lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic ac2d, CO …  Shortage of rennet – so they used stomach of adult animals, but adults have very little chymosin. But they have an enzyme called bovine pepsin, which is acidic, so it worked.  Certain fungi (mucro miehei) produce enzymes that cleave proteins so they worked as well.  1990 – chymosin produced by recombinant DNA approved. o Sample of calf cells  copy of chymosin gene  gene inserted into plasmid  plasmid put into yeast cells  chymosin from modified yeast cells. o First biotechnology-modified food product.  In France, they have 365 different types of cheese. World of Chem: Food April 11 – Wine and Cheese  Fresh cheese: cottage cheese. o You can make mozzarella from cottage cheese. Not aged at all. Have to stretch it. In Italy, it is made from black buffalo milk.  Soft-ripened cheese: inoculated with micro-organisms – bacteria on the surface. o Camembert cheese: mold added to the surface.  The real turophile will only eat the inside, whereas a fake turophile will eat the outside/surface as well. o Brie cheese: “king of cheese”.  Proper way to eat is “au coulant”, meaning „running‟ – don‟t put in fridge.  Pasteurized cheese does not age well.  Blue cheese: inoculated within – not on the surface. o Roquefort: made with goat cheese.  Smelly  Gives off 2-heptanone, which is the alarm pheromone for bees.  Semi-soft cheese: surface-ripened cheese – remove more water o Oka cheese  Hard cheese: more water will be removed than semi-soft cheese. o Swiss cheese: coming from Switzerland.  Holes made by device to stir – called the harp – and remove the water, so use a large cheesecloth and put it under a press. Remove the water by pressing. Put in waxy material, where the cheese is exposed to propionibacter shermanii which acts on lactic acid and converts it to propionic acid a2d CO .  Propionic acid is a natural preservative so on labels, they can say “no preservatives added” o Cheddar cheese: yellow in Canada but grey-ish in origin.  If you‟re taking MAOIs against depression, you should not eat cheese (especially hard cheeses) because cheese contains tyramine, which is not metabolised when MAOIs are present – so too much tyramine, and high blood pressure.  Processed cheese: developed by J.L Kraft o Put cheeses together and melted them. o Used an emulsifier: sodium monohydrogen phosphate o Processed cheese food means not made with cheese – made with milk solids instead. o Imitation cheese: made from vegetable oil. o Different types of cheese:  Process cheese: 40% moisture, 33% fat, 110 calories  Process cheese food: 44% moisture, 27% fat, 90 calories  Process cheese spread: 48% moisture, 22% fat, 80 calories  Process cheese product: 59% moisture, 8% fat, 70 calories  Cheese is a good source of protein, calcium, and unfortunately fat.  Conjugated acids: alternating single and double bonds. Good for one‟s health. World of Chem: Food April 11 – Wine and Cheese Wine  In moderation, is good for one‟s health  A wine lover is known as oenophile  Consumption of wine is going up all over the world, except for France – consumption is going down in France.  French people drink, on average, 6-12 glasses (1-2 bottles) a week.  Vatican is the country with the highest per capita wine consumption. o Vatican: 70L/year; France: 45L/year; Italy: 42L/year; Canada: 10L/year  Most of the wine in Canada is drunk in the Yukon o Yukon: 20L/year; Quebec: 19L/year; B.C.: 16L/year  On the Canary Islands, when a child comes of age, they are covered in wine.  Composition of wine: o 100 calories from alcohol – 7 cal/g. o Vitamins:  Niacin (B3) – must drink 10 bottles/day to fill daily need  Pantothenic acid  Pyridoxine  Alcohol increases levels of HDL.  Danish study: in terms of general health, the participants that did the best were wine drinkers, then beer drinks, followed by liquor and non-drinkers. o Resveratrol, an antioxidant in wine, responsible for this? A stable structure due to its resonance. Thus it is called a free-radical trap: will stabilize free radicals.  Doesn‟t work well in pills  Red wines are richest in resveratrol  When you eat with wine, you eat slower – you are more relaxed. Americans tend to eat quickly, which promotes a buildup of plaque into the arteries, which leads to heart disease. So if you drink wine with a meal, it may prevent heart disease.  A company in Boston tried to show resveratrol was of benefit. They carried out a study: resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. o But rats were given the equivalent of 1,500 bottles of wine/day.  If you drink too much wine, you build up levels of acetaldehyde. o Ethanol  oxidized by enzymes into acetaldehyde  oxidized further into acetic acid o If you over drink, the body does not have a chance to convert acetaldehyde into acetic acid (not enough enzymes) o Acetaldehyde is responsible for the symptoms of the hangover.  Congeners: chemicals associated with the hangover. They are generated as part of the wine aging process. The more aged an alcoholic beverage is, the more coloured it is, the higher concentration of congeners, and the higher chance of getting a hangover. o Cognac, whisky and red wine highest hangover rating. o Vodka and gin are lowest hangover rating – clear alcohol, not aged. o Whiskey (U.S, Ireland – not aged as much) has a lower hangover rating than whisky (Scotland, Canada – aged more) o Women tend to be sensitive to red wine especially. World of Chem: Food April 11 – Wine and Cheese  Wine at the University of Bordeaux: wine may cuts risk of Alzheimer‟s with 3-4 glasses a day.  Dr. Maury has a theory that the best medicine is wine – but you have to choose the right wine depending on the disease. o Bordeaux for diabetes o Champagne for hypertension o Cote de Bordeaux for flu o Muscadet for cellulite o Beaujolais for infections o Sylvaner for obesity  The first thing Noah did (Noah‟s ark) after the flood was he planted a vineyard and drank. This indicates wine is healthy – he lived for 950 years.  The Greeks developed a taste for Retsina – a specific type
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