World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I
Food pyramid – www.mypyramid.gov
Bellview hospital – rats in the hospital. Not so good conditions in the past.
Life expectancy increases 3 years every decade
Life expectancy was ~47 years in 1900.
Plumpy’nut is a high-protein, peanut based paste. It saves lives around the world (WHO-
UNESCO). It lasts a long time and doesn’t spoil. 2 year shelf life.
Fernando Botero paintings – people and food are large. “art is deformation”
Recombinant bovine growth hormone makes cows produce more milk. A lot of people
are against this; milk contains fat
Ron Howard, Spike Lee advertise for milk
There is fat in milk, thus advertising is still needed
Cooking with coconut oil for popcorn but a lot of fat.
o Problem 10 years ago.
o Equivalent to 2 big macs
Iodized salt prevents goitre
Polyester of sucrose; you taste fat but don’t digest it.
Super size me: 10% body fat to 18% body fat.
Don Gorske – retired prison guard. 25,000 big mac; maintained his weight.
The green kitchen – cupboards from wheat straw, cutlery from corn, carpets from corn,
aprons from hemp, etc.
U.S. market for functional foods to grow steadily through 2010. Functional foods have
something added to it to make it more appealing (coke with vitamins, etc.) 1995 – $10
billion; 2010 – $60 billion
o Most products fail
Freeganism: anti-consumerism group. Go to the backend of a restaurant and get the food
that’s being thrown out (restaurants aren’t allowed to give out food; they should be
thrown out). Or go to the garbage and take out paintings, lawnmowers, etc.
PERCENTAGE OF HOUSHOLD EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD (family)
UNITED STATES/ CANADA 7 food here is relatively inexpensive
PAKISTAN 46 World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I
o Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (French chemist) and his wife by Jacques-Louis David
Lavoisier did experiments where an individual would breathe into the tube and they
examined the CO to know what people were expelling from their food. Late 1700s.
Conservation of mass demonstrated
o “The Potato Eaters” – Van Gogh 1885. (Painting) Potatoes and coffee for dinner.
o “Women Mending Nets in the Dunes” Van Gogh 1882 (Painting)
Showed poor peoples’ diets
o New York late 1800s people did not have enough to eat. Same now; children do not have
enough to eat in other countries.
o CaSO u4ed to dilute something to make it less expensive (for sugar, salt, etc.)
o Pure Food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (Book)
o Upton Sinclair: The Jungle. Exposé of meat industry in Chicago.
Harvested peoples’ fat
o Cabbage Looper is an insect that eats cabbage leaves. ~40% of crops are destroyed by
Problem in distribution and losses in this fashion.
Food is plentiful in many parts of the world, but is it nutritious?
What is eaten by 2 different societies: India and USA. Fat is 7x India for USA; 1.5x India
o Protein: India 21,000 US 32,000
o Fat: India 9,000 US 61,000
o More rice in India
o More wheat, sugar, meat, fats/oils in USA
H O: Radishes 98% water; watermelons 96% water.
Apple: flavors (acetone, ethanol, formaldehyde, methanol, 2-Propanol), sugar (~6 sugar
cubes), fibres, water (120 mL – 85%).
Meat is 1/3 to ½ water World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I
Basic food facts:
Recommended amounts for an average-sized person
% CAL G/DAY
Fat 30 65
Protein 12 60
CARBHYDRATES 48 240
SUGAR 10 50
415 ~ 1 lb dry food/day
Proteins and carbohydrates at 4 cal/g each
Fats = 9 cal/g (easier to store chemically in the body than proteins or carbs)
Cooking was recently proposed as a major factor in the evolutionary success of
humans. Made food more capable of being digested.
Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human – a book.
Has to do with size of jaw and mouth
Molecular Coproscopy: analysing feces of animals. Coprolites = dried feces
(fragments of foods the animal ate)
To determine what people ate centuries back.
E.g. 1200 AD burnt corn and licorice
7 billion people as 100
51 females; 49 males
1 has a university education
Orthorexia Nervosa: Obsession in eating the “right” foods
Foods we are focusing on:
Macro is substantial in diet
Micro is smaller amounts in diet World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I
Saturated fat proper amount is way less than actual amount in diet; consumed is ~5x as
much as recommended.
Weight added by sugar and saturated fat
Changes in diet from 1970 to 2006 (USA): 16.4 lbs/week to 18.2 lbs/week (11%
o Dairy -20%
o Meat/eggs +11%
o Sugar +17%
o Fruit +26%
o Grains +42%
o Fats +59%
Calculation: % weight is grams/total
C 12 O2 –11arbo(hydrate)
Sugar + sulfuric acid carbon + steam
o Sulfuric acid takes water out
Sucrose: glucose and fructose
Origin of sugar: India (Columbus)
Slavery (Sugar plantations)
Sugar was a rarity in Europe in 1300s and 1400s
~15% sucrose in the plants – large amount. Physical conversion to get sucrose out of the
plant, not chemical.
Deficator – sugar had to be ground up, boiled down and separated from any impurities.
U.S. patent 4,879 in 1846 by Norbert Rillieux; half black, half white. Latent heat of
water. (made difficulties of extraction procedures easier). Cousin of Degas, a painter.
o Less complicated and hot to get sugar out of the deficator
First patent to Samuel Hopkins in 1790 for potash (potassium salts from wood ash good
o Signed by George Washington
o 1791: first patent in C