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Food 1

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McGill University
CHEM 181
David Harpp

World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I Introduction/Food I  Food pyramid –  Bellview hospital – rats in the hospital. Not so good conditions in the past.  Life expectancy increases 3 years every decade  Life expectancy was ~47 years in 1900.  Plumpy’nut is a high-protein, peanut based paste. It saves lives around the world (WHO- UNESCO). It lasts a long time and doesn’t spoil. 2 year shelf life.  Fernando Botero paintings – people and food are large. “art is deformation”  Recombinant bovine growth hormone makes cows produce more milk. A lot of people are against this; milk contains fat  Ron Howard, Spike Lee advertise for milk  There is fat in milk, thus advertising is still needed  Cooking with coconut oil for popcorn but a lot of fat. o Problem 10 years ago. o Equivalent to 2 big macs  Iodized salt prevents goitre  Polyester of sucrose; you taste fat but don’t digest it.  Super size me: 10% body fat to 18% body fat.  Don Gorske – retired prison guard. 25,000 big mac; maintained his weight.  The green kitchen – cupboards from wheat straw, cutlery from corn, carpets from corn, aprons from hemp, etc.  U.S. market for functional foods to grow steadily through 2010. Functional foods have something added to it to make it more appealing (coke with vitamins, etc.) 1995 – $10 billion; 2010 – $60 billion o Most products fail  Freeganism: anti-consumerism group. Go to the backend of a restaurant and get the food that’s being thrown out (restaurants aren’t allowed to give out food; they should be thrown out). Or go to the garbage and take out paintings, lawnmowers, etc. PERCENTAGE OF HOUSHOLD EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD (family) UNITED STATES/ CANADA 7 food here is relatively inexpensive UK 9 AUSTRALIA 11 BRAZIL 25 RUSSIA 28 CHINA 33 INDIA 35 KENYA 45 PAKISTAN 46 World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I Historically: o Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (French chemist) and his wife by Jacques-Louis David (painting)  Lavoisier did experiments where an individual would breathe into the tube and they examined the CO to know what people were expelling from their food. Late 1700s. 2  Conservation of mass demonstrated o “The Potato Eaters” – Van Gogh 1885. (Painting) Potatoes and coffee for dinner. o “Women Mending Nets in the Dunes” Van Gogh 1882 (Painting)  Showed poor peoples’ diets o New York late 1800s people did not have enough to eat. Same now; children do not have enough to eat in other countries. o CaSO u4ed to dilute something to make it less expensive (for sugar, salt, etc.)  1900s scam o Pure Food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (Book) o Upton Sinclair: The Jungle. Exposé of meat industry in Chicago.  1910’s  Harvested peoples’ fat o Cabbage Looper is an insect that eats cabbage leaves. ~40% of crops are destroyed by insects.  Problem in distribution and losses in this fashion. Food is plentiful in many parts of the world, but is it nutritious?  What is eaten by 2 different societies: India and USA. Fat is 7x India for USA; 1.5x India for protein. o Protein: India 21,000 US 32,000 o Fat: India 9,000 US 61,000 o More rice in India o More wheat, sugar, meat, fats/oils in USA  H O: Radishes 98% water; watermelons 96% water. 2  Apple: flavors (acetone, ethanol, formaldehyde, methanol, 2-Propanol), sugar (~6 sugar cubes), fibres, water (120 mL – 85%).  Meat is 1/3 to ½ water World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I Basic food facts: Recommended amounts for an average-sized person % CAL G/DAY Fat 30 65 Protein 12 60 COMPLEX CARBHYDRATES 48 240 SUGAR 10 50 415 ~ 1 lb dry food/day Proteins and carbohydrates at 4 cal/g each Fats = 9 cal/g (easier to store chemically in the body than proteins or carbs)  Cooking was recently proposed as a major factor in the evolutionary success of humans. Made food more capable of being digested.  Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human – a book.  Has to do with size of jaw and mouth  Molecular Coproscopy: analysing feces of animals. Coprolites = dried feces (fragments of foods the animal ate)  To determine what people ate centuries back.  E.g. 1200 AD burnt corn and licorice Perspectives 7 billion people as 100  51 females; 49 males  70 illiterate  50 malnutrition  1 has a university education  Orthorexia Nervosa: Obsession in eating the “right” foods Foods we are focusing on: Carbohydrates (macro) Fats (macro) Proteins (macro) Minerals (micro) Vitamins (micro)  Macro is substantial in diet  Micro is smaller amounts in diet World of Chem: Food January 10 – Introduction/Food I  Saturated fat proper amount is way less than actual amount in diet; consumed is ~5x as much as recommended.  Weight added by sugar and saturated fat  Changes in diet from 1970 to 2006 (USA): 16.4 lbs/week to 18.2 lbs/week (11% increase) o Dairy -20% o Meat/eggs +11% o Sugar +17% o Fruit +26% o Grains +42% o Fats +59%  Calculation: % weight is grams/total Carbohydrates Sucrose “sugar”  C 12 O2 –11arbo(hydrate)  4 cal/gram  Sugar + sulfuric acid  carbon + steam o Sulfuric acid takes water out  Sucrose: glucose and fructose  Origin of sugar: India (Columbus)  Slavery (Sugar plantations)  Sugar was a rarity in Europe in 1300s and 1400s  ~15% sucrose in the plants – large amount. Physical conversion to get sucrose out of the plant, not chemical.  Deficator – sugar had to be ground up, boiled down and separated from any impurities.  U.S. patent 4,879 in 1846 by Norbert Rillieux; half black, half white. Latent heat of water. (made difficulties of extraction procedures easier). Cousin of Degas, a painter. o Less complicated and hot to get sugar out of the deficator  First patent to Samuel Hopkins in 1790 for potash (potassium salts from wood ash good for fertilizer) o Signed by George Washington o 1791: first patent in C
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