Class Notes (808,754)
Canada (493,378)
Chemistry (1,120)
CHEM 181 (325)


10 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
CHEM 181
David Harpp

World of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals Minerals In the ocean 60 mL water in ocean, 3.5% salt (off coast of New Jersey but also mostly worldwide) Galapagos iguanas everywhere o 1 mole sample of water from Galapagos; 3.8% salt. o Warmer thus water evaporates, increases salt concentration o Not much fresh water flowing in to the ocean to dilute it Dead Sea very dense. ~32% salt. 10x salt concentration there. Elements are not ions. Salts are ions, not elements. Ions What we are dealing with. Remove electrons to get calcium (2+), magnesium (2+), sodium (1+) CaSO G4psum (a mineral sands, soft chalk) Ca + SO+ 42- 2+ 2- MgSO E4son Salts (foot soak) Mg + SO 4 Ca(HCO ) 3 2cium Bicarbonate [decomposes into] CaCO (limesto3e) + CO + H O 2 2 NaCl Table Salt Other crystallizations: Dolomite MgCO an3 CaCO , ins3de is HgS (highly toxic) o Vermillion ground up magnesium sulfide. o Dolomite pills - one tablet contains 158.3 mg Ca, 75 mg Mg, 2.81 mg Fe only! o Dolomite poisoning may occur companies dont have to list other minerals if they are under a certain concentration. Arsenic, mercury, aluminum can be in there! The weight difference between an element and its ion is much less than micrograms. (The weight of an electron is hardly measurable!) Salts Ions Proton number determines the element. Proton in the nucleus is surrounded by electrons equal to the charge in the nucleus. Na (reacts with water catches fire) atomic number of 11. Extra 1 electron is unstable. o Ionic bonding with water, thus ionic material created o Combined with Cl (which is harsh on the lungs) Pale green gas Atomic number is 17 Has 7 electrons that are unstable o 1 electron transferred from Na and 7 electrons on Cl = 8 electrons on the Cl. Thus stable. World of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals o Na lost an electron so Na and Cl gained one so Cl . - o Such ions conduct electricity stable octets. K (reacts dramatically with Br2 (l)kept under hydrocarbon protection, KBr is formed. An ionic compound: KBr K and Br - 730 mg salt in Campbells soup! Uyuni salt flats in Bolivia and Chile Salt Shed Interior Christopher Pratt painting 40% by weight of 6g salt is sodium. ~2.4g twice the recommended intake! 1 crystal of salt is ~60g Hypertension o What too much salt leads to o 120 systolic / 80 diastolic is normal o 150 / 100 = high Too much water gets retained. o Hard for body to pump blood around due to extra liquid in body Dill pickles have no salt content, but brine pickles have a lot (a weeks worth of salt!). Potassium o Some people are taking this instead of sodium o Potatoes+have more potas+ium than bananas Potassium (K ) / Sodium (Na ) ratio o Potassium ion is a lot bigger than the sodium ion o Ratio should be the same Macronutrients are about 400-500 g/day o Protein 100g; fat 150g; carbohydrate 200g Micronutrients are about 1-2 g/day, o Macro-micro nutrients: sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and a bit of iron Iron: 2-4 g in the body; need 10-20 mg/day Iron problems: o Iron deficiency anemia o Hemochromatosis (genetic) body absorbs abnormal amounts of iron; stored in the heart, liver, pancreas and joints. Thus, heart and liver disease, diabetes and arthritis. Cooking every day in iron pots! o Porphyria: an inherited condition. Too much porphyn produced. Affects the nervous system and/or the skin; excessive hair; red face Hemoglobin needs iron in the middle to bind with oxygen for travel around the body. In red meats and broccoliWorld of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals Iron is best absorbed with vitamin C o Vitamin C assists in the absorption from the gastrointestinal tract Can be fortified in bread Geritol: 1 mL has 3.3 mg iron; 1 tablespoon has 49.5 mg Slow Fe: slow release iron: 47.5 mg is 264% of what you need. o Micro-micro nutrients: V, Mo, Sn 6+ Molybdenum (Mo ) needed ~2 mg/day Found in nuts, canned vegetables, bread, cereals Essential component of enzymes: xanthine enzymes remove uric acid. (for prevention of gout) Mineral Zinc o Culture of A.N. spores causes respiratory problems. They need zinc to thrive. o Dark if in small particles; elemental zinc no charge. Zno o Zn - ionic zinc. White crystalline material. o 0.003% of body we
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 181

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.