World of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals
In the ocean
60 mL water in ocean, 3.5% salt (off coast of New Jersey but also mostly worldwide)
Galapagos iguanas everywhere
o 1 mole sample of water from Galapagos; 3.8% salt.
o Warmer thus water evaporates, increases salt concentration
o Not much fresh water flowing in to the ocean to dilute it
Dead Sea very dense. ~32% salt. 10x salt concentration there.
Elements are not ions. Salts are ions, not elements.
What we are dealing with.
Remove electrons to get calcium (2+), magnesium (2+), sodium (1+)
CaSO G4psum (a mineral sands, soft chalk) Ca + SO+ 42-
MgSO E4son Salts (foot soak) Mg + SO 4
Ca(HCO ) 3 2cium Bicarbonate [decomposes into] CaCO (limesto3e) + CO + H O 2 2
NaCl Table Salt
Other crystallizations: Dolomite MgCO an3 CaCO , ins3de is HgS (highly toxic)
o Vermillion ground up magnesium sulfide.
o Dolomite pills - one tablet contains 158.3 mg Ca, 75 mg Mg, 2.81 mg Fe only!
o Dolomite poisoning may occur companies dont have to list other minerals if
they are under a certain concentration. Arsenic, mercury, aluminum can be in
The weight difference between an element and its ion is much less than micrograms. (The weight
of an electron is hardly measurable!)
Proton number determines the element. Proton in the nucleus is surrounded by electrons
equal to the charge in the nucleus.
Na (reacts with water catches fire) atomic number of 11. Extra 1 electron is unstable.
o Ionic bonding with water, thus ionic material created
o Combined with Cl (which is harsh on the lungs)
Pale green gas
Atomic number is 17
Has 7 electrons that are unstable
o 1 electron transferred from Na and 7 electrons on Cl = 8 electrons on the Cl. Thus
stable. World of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals
o Na lost an electron so Na and Cl gained one so Cl . -
o Such ions conduct electricity stable octets.
K (reacts dramatically with Br2 (l)kept under hydrocarbon protection, KBr is formed. An
ionic compound: KBr K and Br -
730 mg salt in Campbells soup!
Uyuni salt flats in Bolivia and Chile
Salt Shed Interior Christopher Pratt painting
40% by weight of 6g salt is sodium. ~2.4g twice the recommended intake!
1 crystal of salt is ~60g
o What too much salt leads to
o 120 systolic / 80 diastolic is normal
o 150 / 100 = high
Too much water gets retained.
o Hard for body to pump blood around due to extra liquid in body
Dill pickles have no salt content, but brine pickles have a lot (a weeks worth of salt!).
o Some people are taking this instead of sodium
o Potatoes+have more potas+ium than bananas
Potassium (K ) / Sodium (Na ) ratio
o Potassium ion is a lot bigger than the sodium ion
o Ratio should be the same
Macronutrients are about 400-500 g/day
o Protein 100g; fat 150g; carbohydrate 200g
Micronutrients are about 1-2 g/day,
o Macro-micro nutrients: sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and a bit of iron
Iron: 2-4 g in the body; need 10-20 mg/day
o Iron deficiency anemia
o Hemochromatosis (genetic) body absorbs abnormal
amounts of iron; stored in the heart, liver, pancreas and
joints. Thus, heart and liver disease, diabetes and arthritis.
Cooking every day in iron pots!
o Porphyria: an inherited condition. Too much porphyn
produced. Affects the nervous system and/or the skin;
excessive hair; red face
Hemoglobin needs iron in the middle to bind with oxygen for
travel around the body.
In red meats and broccoliWorld of Chem: Food February 7 - Minerals
Iron is best absorbed with vitamin C
o Vitamin C assists in the absorption from the gastrointestinal
Can be fortified in bread
Geritol: 1 mL has 3.3 mg iron; 1 tablespoon has 49.5 mg
Slow Fe: slow release iron: 47.5 mg is 264% of what you need.
o Micro-micro nutrients: V, Mo, Sn
Molybdenum (Mo ) needed ~2 mg/day
Found in nuts, canned vegetables, bread, cereals
Essential component of enzymes: xanthine enzymes remove uric
acid. (for prevention of gout)
o Culture of A.N. spores causes respiratory problems. They need zinc to thrive.
o Dark if in small particles; elemental zinc no charge. Zno
o Zn - ionic zinc. White crystalline material.
o 0.003% of body we